Introduction. “Opioid Dependence Is Related To The Abuse

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Introduction
“Opioid dependence is related to the abuse of not only illegal opioid drugs (e.g. heroin), but also some of the most commonly prescribed drugs, such as codeine-containing Tylenol, hydromorphone, oxycodone, morphine and others” (Canadian Agency for Drugs and
Technologies in Health, 2013, p. 1). “The abuse of and addiction to opioids is a serious and challenging public health problem. Deaths from drug overdose have risen steadily over the past two decades and have become the leading cause of injury death in the United States” (Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, 2015, para. 1). Due to this growing problem physicians, nurses, and patients have looked for alternative methods to treat the
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22).
One medicine that has commonly been used in the treatment of opioid addiction is
Buprenorphine. Buprenorphine is described as “an opioid partial agonist. This means that, like opioids, it produces effects such as euphoria or respiratory depression. With buprenorphine, however, these effects are weaker than those of full drugs such as heroin and methadone”
(Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2016, para. 1). Therefore, in a sense, fire is being fought with fire by using other partial opioids to fight addiction to opioids.
Unfortunately, this means that there are still addictive properties in Buprenorphine, because it is still partially an opioid.
This systematic review is aimed at determining which treatment, Kratom or
Buprenorphine, better treats withdrawal syndrome in adults with opioid addiction.
Methods
The clinical question addressed in the systematic review was the following: In opioid addicts, how does Kratom compared with Buprenorphine affect withdrawal syndrome within adults? Systematic searches of PubMed, CINAHL Complete, and ProQuest Medical Library were used by three reviewers (B.B., R.W., & S.S.) using the keywords Mitragyna speciosa,
Kratom, Buprenorphine, adults, and opioid withdrawal syndrome.
The first reviewer (B.B.) searched PubMed, using the keywords Kratom OR
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