Introduction. Toronto, Including The Greater Toronto Area,

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Toronto, including the Greater Toronto Area, is a multicultural and urban Canadian city with a current population of 5,406,324 (Monga Bay, n.d.). In 1985, Canada had an estimated population 3,356,000 and an estimated population of 4,925,000 people in 2005 (Monga Bay, n.d.). The fluctuation in population reflects a simple change in number over time and that change can cause an alteration of societal values, striving to change the criminal justice system.

Youth probation officers have a role in the criminal justice system to supervise young offenders to ensure a compliance with court orders and are on good behaviour for an arranged period of time (Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Service, 2016). Youth
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Similarly, the perspectives of the youth probation officers in Toronto may differ from youth probation officers from other cities in Ontario, along with other provinces and territories. In addition, another limitation of this paper is that the answers given by the youth probation officers were done within the past five years, during the Youth Criminal Justice Act. However, the act was implemented in 2003, with many officers who started their work prior to the enactment, which may cause a variation of their values in youth justice. To counter this complication, the interviews will provide insight on challenges the youth probation officers in the city have faced progressively.

Young Offenders Act

Criminal justice systems, along with the accompanying policies, are continuously changing and moving towards modernity (Brabazon, 2017). There is a change in value judgement when modernity is applied to society. The movement towards modernity and the shift in value judgment makes a criminal justice system supposedly morally superior with the combination of human rights (Brabazon, 2017).

As previously mentioned, from 1984 to 2003, Canada used the Young Offenders Act as the legislation for the youth criminal justice system (Umamaheswar, 2013, p. 1163). The Young Offenders Act replaced the Juvenile Delinquents Act and preceded the Youth Criminal Justice Act that Canada currently uses (Umamaheswar, 2013, p. 1163). The Young

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