Introduction to Zoology Essay

650 Words Sep 19th, 2014 3 Pages
Chapter 1 Review Questions

1).Why is life difficult to define?
Life is difficult to define due to the fixed properties varying from earliest living forms than those from today. This represents extensive and ongoing change refered to as Evolution. So we must base our definition on common history of life on earth.

2). What are the basic chemical differences that distinguish living and nonliving systems?
The basic chemical differences from distinguished living and non living systems are:
Chemical Uniqueness, Complexity and hierarchical organization, Reproduction,Possession of a genetic program, metabolism, development, environmental interaction, movement,

3). Describe the hierarchical organization of life. How
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7). Use studies of natural selection in British moth populations to illustrate the hypothetical-deductive method of science.
Obeservation – rise of smoke pollution, decrease of Melanic moths.
Question formed about this and then a null hypothesis is generated. The empirical test gathered on data about larval growth rates set in two groups: test group, control group. Conclusions where made of the decrease in moths due to the soot on the trees exposing these moths to their natural predators.

8). How do we distinguish the terms hypothesis, theory, paradigm and scientific fact?
Theory is a hypothesis that explains a phenomena a paradigm is a powerful theory that guide extensive research. Scientific fact is a paradigm that can me tested over and over and the conclusion result the same.

9).How do biologists distinguish experimental and evolutionary sciences?
Experimental sciences – investigate proximate causes.
Evolutionary sciences – address questions of ultimate cause.
How they distinguish would be by going through a scientific method of their findings.

10). What are Darwin's five theories of evolution (as identified by Ernst Mayr)? Which are accepted as fact and which continue to stir controversy among biologists?
1) Perpetual Change(fact)
2) Common Descent(disputed)
3) Multiplication of Species(disputed)
4) Gradualism(disputed)
5) Natural Selection(chromosomal thoery of inheritance was added due to

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