Autism is a developmental disorder, which is characterized by a dyad of difficulties in a) communication and social interaction and b) restricted interests and imagination (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Individuals on the Autism Spectrum might find it challenging to understand what other people think or what the reasons for their behaviours are, as their ‘theory of mind’ may not be well developed (Schuwerk, Vuori & Sodian, 2015). It is possible that this is why they might behave in socially inappropriate ways, being unable to differentiate between different contexts, while they might also find it difficult to make friends. Moreover, it is likely that they are fond of routines, repetition and structure (Carnahan, Musti-Rao, & Bailey, 2009), as they might be nervous with unknown, new situations. In addition, some of them might not do eye contact with other people, whereas some others might not endure to be touched and might have a difficulty developing speech (Jordan, 2005). Individuals on the Autism Spectrum might sometimes be prohibited to initiate conversations and might struggle with finding different ways to play and behave, due to the possible deficit of imagination, which in some cases might result in them having a narrow sphere of interests. Nevertheless, it should be noted that this group of people is rather heterogeneous, as characteristics of autism may differ from one individual to another (Gwynette, 2013). Another point is that people with Autism
Autism is a form of neurodevelopment disorder in the autism spectrum disorders. It is characterized by impaired development in social interactions and communication, both verbal and non-verbal. There is an observed lack of spontaneous acts of communication; both receptive and expressed, as well as speech impairments. A person diagnosed with Autism will also show a limited range of activities and interests, as well as forming and maintain peer relationships. The individuals will display limited interests, which are often very focused and repetitive. He or she is likely to be very routine oriented and may show behavioral symptoms such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, aggressiveness, and self-injurious behaviors.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be portrayed toward critical impairments in social interaction. It also includes restricted repeated behaviors, interests and activities. (Mayo Clinic staff, 2014)
Autism spectrum disorders are a class of developmental disorders that impair social skills, behavior, and communication (Center for Disease Control). ASDs are considered ‘spectrum’ disorders because each patient has a unique experience in the nature and severity of their symptoms (Center for Disease Control). Under the umbrella of ASDs, there are three types of disorders, including Autistic disorder, Asperger Syndrome, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (Center for Disease Control). Autistic disorder is the most severe of the three, and patients exhibit significant problems with language, communication, and behavior (Center for Disease Control). Furthermore, people with Autistic disorder often have some intellectual impairment (Center for Disease Control). Asperger Syndrome is a milder form of autistic disorder where patients have some developmental delays, but their language and intellect are not affected (Center for Disease Control). The mildest of the ASDs is the pervasive developmental disorder. These patients usually don’t meet all of the criteria for autistic disorder, but do show some signs of social and communication problems (Center for Disease Control). The number of children diagnosed with ASD is growing, and currently 1 in 88 children fall somewhere on the spectrum (Mari-Bauset et al., 2013). Boys are four times more likely than girls to have autism, and while the exact cause of these disorders is unknown, both genetic and
Even as adults, sometimes we tend to question whether or not there is something more to us. In years past, and often still is, the subject of autism was unknown, and often misunderstood. Many times autistic tendencies are just dismissed as either bad behaviors or defiance. Many times the individual also has an underlying condition such as attention deficit disorder. This article sheds some light on that subject.
In the area of social interaction, the individual is often withdrawn from others. They lack the ability to comprehend facial expressions and the actions of others are confusing. Many individuals with autism lack interest in social interaction. There is a lack of imagination and
Research shows that internalizing behavior has affected academic performance. Students who have displayed internalized behaviors would withdraw from social interaction in the classroom, which could affect the learning process. In addition, student with autism who have delayed language and social interaction similar to students with internalized behaviors may have a difficult time working in group activity and
This implicitly links with the observations of Attwood (2007 p 56) which describe Asperger syndrome (as part of the autism spectrum of characteristics) and social interaction as
Brian Barger & Jonathan Campbell & Christina Simmons found that children with autism tend to score lower on the level of extraversion. In their study, all parents need to complete the Inventory of Children’s Individual Differences- Short Form (ICID-S; Deal et al. 2007) to measure the level of extraversion. In the test, 4 facets indicate level of extraversion: social, positive emotion, activity level and considerate. Children took the Autism Quotient (AQ; Aeyeung et al. 2008) to test the
Based on the new version (2013) of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex developmental disorder that can cause problems with thinking, feeling, language and the ability to relate to others. The effects this neurological disorder, which is due to the malfunctioning of the brain are different in each person . The concept of autistic spectrum disorder is broad, and not restricted to the classic clinical picture. ASD Characteristics in DSM-5 changed from triad (social, communication, behavioral) into a dyad by combining the social and communication domains and it showed the importance of these
There are two main theories that help identify a person’s personality type, the introvert or the extravert. These ideas became popular by: Carl Jung, he also believed that people at different times showed both characteristics of the introvert and the extravert. Most people are neither introverts nor extraverts they share a mix of the characteristics that define an introvert or an extravert.
In the ISFJ personality the letter “I” represented me being an introvert. Introverts tend to be more closed in and often think about things before acting on them. Introverts would choose reading a book over hanging out with friends. Introverts, like myself, prefer alone time more often than others. I show this common characteristic very often. A lot of my family and friends often worry that I am too introverted and should get out more. In my career, I have always enjoyed one on one task versus group assignments. I always took pride in completing my tasks alone and in a timely and accurate manner. Introvert is a definite fit for my personality. "Good introductory paragraph
Through the years, many have been guided to investigate early evaluations of extroversion and introversion, recognized as core aspects of people's personalities (Bennington-Castro, J., 2013), and ask what effect these evaluations have on the person making them. Research has directly impacted the thoughts on these varying psychological traits: the extrovert – a person concerned more with external reality than inner feelings (Extrovert, 2014.); and the introvert – a person characterized by concern primarily with his or her own thoughts and feelings (Introvert, 2014). When interpreting the stories in reverse order as invited to do, the question became: Is John who the author purports him to be? Whether or not he is, as an