Investigating Covalent Bonds Essay

651 Words 3 Pages
Investigating Covalent Bonds

Covalent bonds are formed when atoms share electrons, one from each atom in a single bond, to form electron pairs, usually making their outermost shells up to eight electrons by this means. This would make them more stable, less reactive and an electronic structure like a noble gas.

They are most frequently formed between pairs of non-metallic elements. Non-metallic elements usually have from four to eight electrons in their outermost shells, the so-called valency electrons, which are used for chemical bonding. In any given “full” shell of eight electrons, the electrons occur in four pairs, but in incomplete shells, the electrons exist singly where possible.
…show more content…
These compounds are frequently insoluble in water, as the mechanism for dissolving described for ionic compounds cannot occur. However, water is also capable of dissolving covalent compounds which form hydrogen bonds, because instead of the ionic attachment, the water molecules can attach themselves to the molecules of the covalent compounds, with a similar result.

Ionic Bonds

Ionic bonds are formed through the electrostatic attraction between two oppositely charged ions. This type of bond normally occurs between metallic and non-metallic elements. Metals typically have few valency electrons, and occur in groups I, II, and III of the periodic table; reactive non-metals typically have more electrons in their outermost shells, and occur in groups IV, V, VI, and VII. An ionic bond occurs when a metal loses all its valency electrons, leaving a positively charged ion with a noble gas structure, and a non-metal gains the number of electrons it requires to give it a noble gas structure, and becomes a negative ion.

The ionic bond occurs by means of the attraction between these charged particles, but because there are, of course, millions and millions of them in any given sample, they do not just pair off to make simple “molecules”. Instead, the positive ions cluster as close as they can round the negative

More about Investigating Covalent Bonds Essay

Open Document