There are various techniques to separate a mixture of compounds from each other. One of the commonly used way to isolate compounds from a mixture of two compounds is called extraction. This method of extracting two compounds from each other relies on the different solubility of the compounds in two different solvents.
In this lab, extraction was use as method for separating a mixture of compounds. Specifically, Benzocaine and Benzoic Acid were individually isolated from a starting mixture which consisted of both components. A percent recovery was found for both. The percent recovery found for the benzocaine was 1%, while the percent recovery for benzoic acid was 35%. These low percentages are result of errors during the experiment. One source of error was during the separation of layers. When separating the two layers, some of the top aqueous layer flowed out with the bottom layer. This happened in all of the separation steps, and caused slight impunity in the compounds. This error could have been prevented by more concentration during this part of the experiment.
Introduction: The fundamental techniques of organic chemistry lab, commonly known as SIPCAn, include separation, isolation, purification, characterization, and analysis (1). Through SIPCAn, students learn the fundamental techniques of organic chemistry laboratory. Mastering these techniques are necessary in order to perform more complicated experiments and to carry out organic reactions and synthesis. The information gained from SIPCAn included boiling point, melting point, and density can be used to identify unknown compounds. Simple distillation was used to purify a compound by separating it from a
This experiment combined all the knowledge of the previous labs performed throughout the semester. An unknown mixture containing an organic acid or base and an organic neutral compound in nearly equal amounts needs to be separated to its separate components. An understanding of solubility, extraction, crystallization and vacuum filtration is necessary in order to
Pre-Lab: Analgesic drugs are known for reducing pain, while antiseptic drugs reduce symptoms such as fevers and swelling. However, some of these drugs can reduce both illnesses. To obtain a pure compound in these drugs, the scientist needs to separate the desired compound by taking advantage of the different physical and chemical properties. Such as; different boiling points, melting points and their solubility properties. To do this a chemist can also asses the differences between acidic and basic substances when they are added to water soluble mixtures. Within this current experiment I will asses the
The purpose of this experiment was to use solvent extraction techniques in order to separate a mixture consisting of a carboxylic acid (p-toulic acid), a phenol (p-tert-butylphenol), and a neutral compound (acetanilide). Extraction is the process of selectively dissolving one or more of the compounds of a mixture into an appropriate solvent, the solution that contains these dissolved compounds is called an extract (Manion, 2004).
Distillation is a method of separating two volatile chemicals on the basis of their differing boiling points. During this lab, students were given 30 mL of an unknown solution containing two colorless chemicals. Because the chemicals may have had a relatively close boiling point, we had to employ a fractional distillation over a simple distillation. By adding a fractionating column between the boiling flask and the condenser, we were able to separate the liquids more efficiently due to the fact that more volatile liquids tend to push towards the top of the fractionating column, thereby leaving the liquid with the lower boiling point towards the bottom. After obtaining the distillates, we utilized a gas chromatograph in order to analyze the volatile substances in the gas phase and determine their composition percentage of the initial solution. Overall, through this lab we were able to enhance our knowledge on the practical utilization of chemical theories, and thus also demonstrated technical fluency involving the equipment.
In the beginning of this experiment, our TA added water, salt, and 75/25 hexane/acetone to spinach leaves to a blender and blended the mixture to assume equal amounts for each group and to avoid erros if each student had to do the blending. The addition of the water to the mixture allowed the it to separate into a distinct organic layer after being run in a centrifuge, which was available to be collected at the top of the centrifuge. Salt reduces solubility, which will force the organic parts of the mixture (the desired pigments for example) to separate into the organic layer at the top. Lastly, 75/25 hexane/acetone is added because this is a moderately polar solvent and will useful for both the non-polar and polar pigments present within the spinach leaves. A mixed solution of hexanes and acetone must be used because acetone is very polar, while hexane in very non-polar, and the spinach leaves contain both non-polar and polar pigments in them that are important in the extraction and for further analysis. The mixture was placed in the centrifuge so the solids in the mixture (mostly cellulose) could be separated from the liquids into separate distinct layers for further extraction and testing. In the tube, the organic substances separated into the top layer, whereas the water layer remains at the bottom of the tube below the solid layer made up of mainly cellulose.
Objective: The objective of this experiment is to use acid-base extraction techniques to separate a mixture of organic compounds based on acidity and/or basicity. After the three compounds are separated we will recover them into their salt forms and then purify them by recrystallization and identify them by their melting points.
The objective of this extraction experiment was to achieve a comprehensive understanding, as well as master the practice, of the technique of separating various individual components of a compound.
Chemically active extraction is a highly useful method of separating organic compounds in mixtures (Padias 128-37). Organic acids and bases are soluble in organic solvents, but their corresponding salts are soluble in water. Therefore, if one had a mixture of an acidic organic compound and a basic organic compound in an organic solvent, addition of a base
As mentioned in the discussion, olive oil, vegetable oil, crisco, and lard were soluble in nonpolar solvents and insoluble in polar solvents. This is due to the chemical composition of polar and nonpolar substances which results from the molecular shape as well as properties of dissolving solutes in solution. Polar substances are hydrophilic and contain polar Van Der Waals interactions (intermolecular forces) such as dipole-dipole forces, ion-dipole forces, and hydrogen bonding. Nonpolar substances are hydrophobic and contain non-polar Van Der Waals interactions. ‘Like dissolve like’ is the reason only polar solutes dissolve in polar solvents and why nonpolar solutes dissolve in nonpolar solvents. Molecules with similar polarity have similar intermolecular forces and therefore, can interact with each, or in this case dissolve9. Additionally, the solubility of a compound is determined by the length of the hydrocarbon chain. Long hydrocarbon chains such as the one found in oleic acid makes a compound more insoluble10. Therefore, since the lipids used in this experiment were hydrophobic substances and each lipid has long hydrocarbon chains, the results were consistent with the scientific literature and principles.
The purpose of this experiment was to determine the molar solubility, the solubility constant, and the effect of a common ion on the molar solubility of calcium hydroxide. To accomplish this the experiment was split into two parts; part A and Part B. in Part A of the experiment a standardized 0.05 M solution of HCl was titrated into a 25 mL solution of saturated Ca(OH)2 which contained 2 drops of orange methyl identifier. Once the titration began, the HCl was added until the methyl orange endpoint was reached, and as a result the volume of the HCl needed for the endpoint to be reached could be used in