Invisible Man

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According to Goethe, "We do not have to visit a madhouse to find disordered minds; our planet is the mental institution of the universe." Despite the hyperbolic nature of Goethe 's statement, it holds some truth. Because of this element of truth, society looks to psychoanalysis as an important tool for understanding human nature. Furthermore, psychoanalytic criticism of authors, characters, and readers has a place in literary criticism that is as important as the place of psychoanalysis in society. This is because of the mimetic nature of much of modern literature. In fact, the psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan wrote, "If psycho-analysis is to be constituted as the science of the unconscious, one must set out from the notion that the unconscious…show more content…
Despite the limitations of his theories, their usefulness still exists, especially as a background for Jung and Lacan. The Freudian text at work in this analysis will be Civilization and Its Discontents. In this text, Freud 's theories about aggression and the death drive are related to societal tensions that isolate the individual. Carl Gustav Jung was somewhat of a "son" to Freud, but he quickly outgrew his "father 's" theories, and, in an ironically Œdipal conflict, overthrew Freud as the leading psychotherapist.(8) The buzzword of Jungian theory is "archetype," so the text of his being used in this study is Four Archetypes. In The Critical Tradition, the editor gives the description of archetypes as "structures deep in the human unconscious."(9) The editor continues and says, "In Jungian analysis, the patient recapitulates his life and looks for the ways in which symbols of the above-mentioned archetypes have been embodied within its texture."(10) From Four Archetypes, the section on rebirth will be the most useful to this study. Jung 's essay "Rebirth" includes descriptions of five different forms of rebirth along with their psychological implications. Jacques Lacan, a more recent theorist than Freud or Jung, based his works on a revision of Freudian ideas. Lacan is the father of the philosophy of psychoanalysis. That is, he believed that psychoanalysis was a valid field of thought independent of its use as a medicinal therapy.(11) In

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