Diabetes, a chronic metabolic disorder, affects 9.3% of the U.S population. The prevalence is much higher in the population of age 65 or older, reaching 25.9%. It was the seventh leading cause of death in the U.S in 2010, evidenced by a total of 234,051 certificates including both underlying causes and contributing causes. Multiple factors contribute to the development of diabetes, although the exact pathogenesis is still undetermined. Patients with diabetes usually require a lifestyle change, diet modification, medication management, or even surgery to control symptoms or disease progression. Currently, diabetes mellitus (DM) is classified into four types: type I, type II, gestational diabetes and other types. Of all DM, 9 out…show more content… The patients usually present with significant weight loss as well as classical symptoms, including polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia. The causes of type I DM are uncertain, although emerging evidence demonstrates that genetic susceptibility, virus, environment, as well as chemical materials contribute to the development. The interplay of these various factors ends in destroying the pancreatic cell, resulting in lifelong insulin requirement to keep patient survival.
Gestational diabetes, affecting approximately 3-10% of pregnancies, is diagnosed by hyperglycemia during pregnancy in women without a history of diabetes. The underlying cause of gestational diabetes remains unknown, although the interference of pregnancy hormones, such as human placental lactogen, with susceptible insulin receptors, has been considered. The patients usually have few symptoms, and they are often diagnosed by screening during routine pregnancy check-up. For the mother, glucose intolerance typically disappears after the baby is born. However, gestational diabetes often places the body at risk. Babies born to mothers with poor hyperglycemia control are often at increased risk of series problems including macrosomia, which associates with a high chance of C-section, shoulder dystocia, hypoglycemia after birth, polycythemia as well as multiple chemical disorders.
Other forms of diabetes include congenital diabetes, infection related