Is Gender Dysphoria Caused Solely By Neurological Dysfunction?

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Is gender dysphoria caused solely by neurological dysfunction?

1. Introduction
Gender dysphoria, formerly referred to as gender identity disorder by Diagnostics and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders by American Psychiatric Association 4th edition and earlier (American Psychiatric Association 2013; gender dysphoria fact sheet.pdf), is marked by irreconcilable differences in one’s biologically expressed gender and the preference for a cross-gender identity (American Psychiatric Association 2000; asset_upload_file155_30369.pdf). It is expressed as a varying level of discomfort living as a gender they do not identify themselves with, and may be distressing enough to undergo a gender reassignment surgery. The preoperational period – change of clothing, name and hormone therapy – which often precede such surgery, has had mixed results, with some reverting back to their biological gender, and others who move onto gender reassignment surgery stage (Green, R 2007; 1-s2.0-S1476179306005568-main.pdf).
This may be of clinical interest in psychology and psychiatry, as well as for primary care physicians (Gooren 2011; Care of Transsexual Persons.pdf) or medical specialists such as paediatricians (Khatchadourian 2013; 1-s2.0-S0022347613013644-main.pdf) but attempts to study the discrepancy in gender identity disorder has been met with varying results and attempts to characterise its potential aetiology remain unclear. The difficulty is further compounded in

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