Is Genetics A Field Of Science?

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Genetics is a field of science that explores how cells work and how traits are passed from one generation to another. The study of genetics is divided into four major categories: Classical or Mendelian genetics, Molecular genetics, Population genetics, and Quantitative genetics. An organism’s genes, are the basis units of heredity which control the traits of an individual. There are two basic kinds of organisms: prokaryotes, whose DNA is circular and cells lack a nucleus, therefore, the DNA is in the cytoplasm and eukaryotes, that have a linear DNA that is inside the nucleus. In most multicellular eukaryotes, cells are divided into somatic cells (body cells) and sex cells. Somatic cells are produced by a cell division process called mitosis, and sex cells undergo a process called meiosis. Humans have a total of 46 chromosomes per cell – 2 sex chromosomes and 44 autosomal chromosomes, which means we have 22 pairs of autosomal chromosomes plus one pair of sex chromosomes for a total of 23 chromosome pairs. Chromosomes are homologous (identical) to one another and one set is referred to as “n” = 23, therefore, humans are 2n = 46. Chromosomes are shaped in a string- like form and each chromosome is characterized by the placement of the centromere, whether its in the middle, or closer to the top or bottom, - metacentric, submetacentric, acrocentric and telocentric, and the centromere is the point of attachment to a spindle fiber during cell division. The ends of the chromosome,
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