Is Nanotechnology A Field Of Applied Science?

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Chapter 1
1.1 Background

Nanotechnology is a field of applied science, focused on the design, synthesis, characterization and application of materials and devices at the nanoscale. This is an emerging field which plays a major role in the development of innovative methods to produce new products. Because of its greater role in enhancing the performance of several existing technologies, it is gaining high attention. Properties of materials often change dramatically when size reduces to nanoscale as compared to that of bulk. Material made from nano-size particles that are smaller than 100 nanometers can suddenly become much stronger than those predicted by existing materials-science models.There are two main reasons for which materials property differ at the nanoscale. First, nanomaterials have a relatively larger surface area when compared to their bulk material. Because of this, nanomaterials are chemically more reactive and this will affect their strength or electrical properties. Second, at nano scale quantum effects can begin to dominate which again affects the optical, electrical and magnetic behaviour of materials[1,2,3].
Nanotechnology has offered solution for many problems associated with vast range of applications in different field, such as in medicine, electronics, energy applications, industrial applications, environmental science and many others. In medicine, nanomaterials are used for targeted drug delivery, imaging and sensing applications. It is
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