These drugs were utilized in order to demonstrate the positive and negative effects on cell communication. Cell communication consists of three steps: reception, transduction, and response. Reception involves the binding of a ligand and a receptor; transduction is a “cascade” of actions between molecules and their proteins, and response is the change that occurs afterwards (1).
Although some agar plates were hard to see if the streptomycin had a definitive zone of inhibition. Ampicillin, erythro-mycin, penicillin, sulphafurazole was ineffective with no inhibition zone.
Microbiologist Selman Waksman found this non-toxic compound in 1943 derived from streptomycetes greiseus mold in the soil. It challenged penicillin as the number one antibiotic because it treated several diseases that were untouched by any other drug, specifically tuberculosis. It also treated diseases such as typhoid fever and bubonic plague. Dr. Hinshaw told The New York Times just after the war that Streptomycin has “very great value in some of the most fulminating types of lung tuberculosis” and was especially helpful in combination with some forms of surgical treatment. A few forms of tuberculosis that yielded to Streptomycin were miliary tuberculosis which spread through the bloodstream, tuberculosis meningitis which attacked the spine and brain, tuberculosis of the larynx and vocal cords, and multiple types of tuberculosis of the intestines. Streptomycin is remembered as the first drug to treat untouched diseases during World War II and curing patients of devastating
Antibiotics are amongst the most important medical discoveries and their introduction represents a remarkable success story (Hedin, 2011). The term antibiotics literally means against life (Walsh, 2000). Thus antibiotics can be used against any microbe such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa. However, some people use the term to only apply to bacteria, but in this paper, the more appropriate term will be used.
When both NA and Praz act on GPCR in VSM membrane, NA induces production of IP3 and Praz does not. Therefore, to produce same level of contraction from NA only by using NA with Praz, higher concentration of NA is necessary to occupy more receptor. Theoretically, the maximum (100%) concentration should be achieved with high concentration of agonist with antagonist (1 p10). 82.61% of contraction was observed in this experiment. it could be due to tissue damage from experimental process or could be influenced by more than five days storage of prepared tissue (3). 5HT2 receptor is located in the CNS and also located in the periphery (1 p196). The subtypes of 5HT2 are linked to colonic motility (5-HT2A), heart (5-HT2B), and central nervous system (5-HT2c) (1 p196). Meth act as antagonist to 5-HT2A, partial agonist to 5-HT2B, and antagonist to 5-HT2C (1 p199, 4). Both 5HT, and Meth works as agonist, but binding of 5HT to receptor give full response (full agonist), and Meth give less than full response (partial agonist). Meth act as agonist in presence of low concentration of 5HT with Meth. Meth act as antagonist in presence of high concentration of 5HT with Meth. Meth disturbs 5HT binding to receptor to give full response. Therefore, crossover of 5HT only trend line and 5HT with Meth should be observed. Absence of crossover might be due to different efficacies, as Meth is known
Antibiotics have played an essential role in the fight against diseases and infections since the 1940’s. Antibiotics are a leading cause for the rise of global average life expectancy in the 20th and 21st century. They have greatly reduced illnesses and deaths due to diseases. With the introductions of antibiotics in the 1940’s, like penicillin into clinical practice, formally deadly illnesses became immediately curable and saved thousands of lives (Yim 2006). Antibiotic use has been beneficial and when prescribed and taken correctly their effects on patients are exceedingly valuable. However, because these drugs have been used so widely and for such a long period of time the bacteria that the antibiotics are designed to kill have adapted,
It is thought to exert its antimicrobial effect by inhibition of protein synthesis. It prevents the binding of amino-acyl-tRNA to the messenger RNA-30S ribosomal subunit.11
The PPIs are inactive pro drugs that are carried in the bloodstream to the parietal cells in the gastric mucosa. The pro drugs readily cross the parietal cell membrane in the cytosol. These drugs are weak bases and therefore have a high affinity for acidic environments. They diffuse across the secretory membrane on the parietal cell into the extracellular secretory canaliculus, the site of active proton pump. Under this acidic conditions the prodrugs are converted to their active form, which irreversibily binds the proton pump, inhibiting acid secretions. Since the’ active principles ‘ forms at a low pH it concentrates selectively in the acidic enviorment of the proton pump and results in extremely effective inhibition of acid secretion.The different PPIs(Omeprazole,Esomeprazole,Lanzoprazole, Pantoprazole and Rabeprazole ) bind to different sites on the proton pump, which may explain their differences in potency on a milligram per milligram basis.
Natural products have been a source of medicinal agents for thousands of years. Impressive number of modern drugs derived from natural products. Today, natural products are one of the main interests for research directed towards drug design and discovery. It also has provided considerable value to the pharmaceutical industry over the past half century. In particular, the therapeutic areas of infectious diseases and oncology have benefited much from numerous drug classes derived from natural form and it is used as template for synthetic modification.
Drug B: When the cells were exposed to drug B at two different concentrations (10uM and 10 µM), no change in activity was noticed and it was equal to basal activity. This clearly signals that B is an antagonist. Then we examine the effect of drug B when used in combination with drug A. The amount of cyclic AMP has decreased as the concentration of drug B increased from 10 uM to 10 µM while the concentration
In the past tense 60 years, antibiotic drugs have been critical to the fight against infectious disease caused by bacteria and other microbe. Antimicrobial chemotherapy has been a lead cause for the dramatic rise of norm life expectancy in the Twentieth Century. 1 However, disease-causing bug that have become resistant to antibiotic drug therapy are an increasing public health trouble. “Wound contagion, tuberculosis, pneumonia, gonorrhea, childhood ear infections, and septicemia are just a few of the diseases that have become hard to treat with antibiotics.” 2 One part of the job is that bacteria and other germ that cause infections are remarkably resilient and have developed several ways to resist antibiotics and other antimicrobial drug. 3 Another part of the problem is due to increasing use, and abuse, of existing
Two of ligands that were favorable binding energy were passed through filters of FAF.drug site.
The primary function of antibiotics is to help kill pathogens that threaten the health of the individual. They do this by getting inside of the disease-causing organism and disrupting its vital processes. There are several ways to disrupt the processes, two major mechanisms will be discussed: One way is to interfere with cell wall synthesis. Beta-lactams are the class of antibiotics that perform this function. Among the Beta-lactams are penicillin and cephalosporin ("How do antibiotics work?" 1997). Another antibiotic mechanism is to interrupt protein synthesis. Tetracyclines and erythromyocin function in this way ("How do antibiotics work?" 1997). They belong to a class of antibiotics named aminoglycerides.
Antibiotic have been essential tools for fight against bacterial infections since the early 20th century. Antibiotics fall under different groups based on the method of treatment. There are basically 3 main groups of antibiotics based on their mechanism of action, i.e Cell wall Disruptive Antibiotics like beta lactams, Protein synthesis inhibitors and nucleic acid
The twentieth century can be considered as the age of the great drug revolution. Medicinal preparations synthesized in the past 100 years have brought about a decrease in the mortality rate of numerous diseases and provide relief for many ailments. Widespread success was achieved first and foremost with infectious diseases such as pulmonary infection, tuberculosis and cholera. For thousands of years, these afflictions were a scourge of mankind.