Alcohol is the most common legal drug of abuse in America. Alternative names for alcohol are ethanol, grain alcohol, ethyl alcohol, spirits, and booze. Alcohol is found in beer, wine, and distilled liquors.
The purpose of this lab is to identify the molecular mass of the volatile liquid. The molecular mass needs to be identified because it is a property that helps determine a substance. Since the substance is volatile, or easily evaporated, the liquid can be converted into gas. As the substance converts into gas, the ideal gas law, PV=nRT, can be used to calculate the the number of moles. Once, the number of moles is calculated, it is used in the molecular mass equation, which is, molecular mass = grams /mol. The grams of the gas is taken directly by measuring the substance, and the moles is taken indirectly through the calculations of the ideal gas law. The result of the calculations should be the molecular mass of the substance.
In this experiment, the pKa, dissociation constant, of 2-naphthol was determined by measuring the UV-visible absorption spectra of solution of the acid at different pH values.
The mole is a convenient unit for analyzing chemical reactions. Avogadro’s number is equal to the mole. The mass of a mole of any compound or element is the mass in grams that corresponds to the molecular formula, also known as the atomic mass. In this experiment, you will observe the reaction of iron nails with a solution of copper (II) chloride and determine the number of moles involved in the reaction. You will determine the number of moles of copper produced in the reaction of iron and copper (II) chloride, determine the number of moles of iron used up in the reaction of iron and copper (II) chloride, determine the ratio of moles of iron to moles of copper, and determine the number of atoms and formula units involved in
Introduction: long ago the government banned the ability to make alcohol. This has caused a huge uproar which then people started to boot legging, as more and more people started to drink in the safety of their own homes. After the government saw how people were protesting this new law, they decided that they should left the ban. Since then people were able to drink in public, which in return has created another issue, now that they are drunk at a bar, how do they get home. Rather than taking the safe option and utilize some of the state and local programs and call a tow truck, the Driver chooses to just drive how drunk. They think that it’s ok, since they do not have their full mind.
The reaction created in the lab was a condensation reaction, specifically a fischer esterification reaction. This reaction is created by combination of a carboxylic acid and alcohol group with loss of water. A very noticible property of ester products are the oders they produce, which is usually described as fruity. For example, propyl methanoate is described as smelling like apples. Butyl heptanoate has a distinct sent of coconut. Also pentyl ethanoate has a banana scent when created. Lastly propyl butanoate is described as smelling like pears.
To prepare and purify an ester: 1-pentyl ethanoate, using pent-1-ol and ethanoic acid. An annotated reaction showing this reaction is shown below:
The specific aims of the experiment were to initiate the transformation of camphene to isobornyl acetate, and analyze a sample of the products using IR to confirm the presence of isobornyl acetate. The results from the IR analysis confirmed that there was isobornyl acetate present, though it was not overly abundant.
The experimental average Kf was calculated to be 4.29, which was pretty close to the actual value of 4.30. The identification of Unknown D was Pentane, and the actual compound was Pentane. However, for Unknowns A and C the experimental molar masses were off by 14 g each. The actual molar mass of ethanol is 46.07, where the experimental one was 160.36. That is mostly due to the hydrogen bonding between ethanol molecules, the strong hydrogen bonding interactions are responsible for the high freezing point, which lead to a higher molar mass.
Data were collected in September and November 2017 at the Elk Valley Preserve and Field Station in Banner Elk, NC. The preserve is located at 36°10'17.2"N 81°54'45.9"W, in Avery County in western North Carolina. The area is a mixed deciduous forest at an altitude of 1,127 m above sea level. Data were collected in early fall, during which temperatures average around 10-18 degrees Celsius. Summers in Banner Elk are typically mild, with temperatures averaging 21 degrees Celsius, and winters are cold and snowy, averaging near zero degrees Celsius. During the months of September and November there is an overall average precipitation of 12-25cm.
From our results we can conclude that our product is 2-methyl-2-hexanol. We came to this conclusion because our product did not react with the sodium test. Tertiary alcohols are the slowest to react with sodium because the hydroxyl group is very crowded. On the contrary, methanol reacts almost immediately because there are only hydrogen atoms surrounding the hydroxyl group. 2-methyl-2-propanol only reacted after a few minutes and no gas was evolved. It can be assumed that our product is a tertiary alcohol which 2-methyl-2-hexanol is. The next test that was performed was the lucas test. In the lucas test tertiary alcohols react the fastest because a carbocation is made and tertiary carbocations are easiest to make. Tertiary alcohols, such as
8.Conlcusion- The main goal for this experiment was to find the molar mass of a unknown volatile liquid. We ended up getting the wrong answer because of a source of error. It is important that you understand the formulas used in this experiment. Both MW=m/n and PV=nRT are needed for this experiment.Our Unknown volatile liquid had a molar mass of 60g/mol and it is called Loopropy
The balls that contained 4% polyvinyl alcohol didn’t stay in a ball like structure for more than ten to fifteen minutes. The balls that contained 4% sodium borate and polyvinyl acetate were able to bounce and retain their shape and stayed in a circular ball shape much longer than the balls that had the 4% polyvinyl alcohol. The balls were able to keep their shape because the polyvinyl acetate cross links with the sodium borate when they are reacted together. The 4% polyvinyl alcohol doesn’t cross link with the borate so the bouncy balls weren’t able to retain their shape. The bouncy balls that consisted of a two to one ratio of polyvinyl acetate and 4% sodium borate produced the best bouncy balls in this experiment. Those bouncy balls bounced the highest after there were placed in the cold and hot temperature environments. They were able to be stretched further than the other balls and retained their shape after being dropped repeatedly. A two to one ratio of polyvinyl acetate and 4% sodium borate was the ideal ratio, in this experiment, to produce a bouncy
Just how drugs and alcohol can become an addiction, television can be an addiction as well. Winn’s key elements are being stated in paragraph three “television experience allows the participant to blot out the real world and enter into a pleasurable and passive mental state” (Winn). Comparing reading and television, reading can easily give you a return ticket to be part of the reality, but getting a return ticket from watching television will not be easy. Simply because some people find reading a book, magazine, etc. can be boring. Once you start watching television, the more you watch the more you become attached to the whatever the person is watching, the more it distracts you from things that are happening around you and putting aside important responsibilities. Just how Winn compares drugs and alcohol “once you start it’s hard to stop” (Winn). Another key element that Winn points out, is in paragraph six, talking about how watching television can also destroy relationships (family, friends, partners, etc.) by having lack in communication. “It weakens relationships by reducing and sometimes elimination normal opportunities for talking, for communicating”