Harmonically, the music is essentially the same as any modern popular genre with a tendency to make use of simple modal chord progressions. For example: I - bVII7 and I - ii - iii - ii are both common progressions in reggae and both examples of the kind of chord structures used in modal jazz.
The country that I chose to conduct a culture analysis on is Jamaica. Jamaica is a third world country located in North America and the 3rd largest island in the Caribbean Sea. There is a 2.5 million population, which equally divided between urban and rural areas. The country runs approximately 146 miles long and varies between 21- 52 miles wide. The climate is tropical and its main tourist attraction is their beautiful beaches. The capital of Jamaica is Kingston, which has a population of more than 645,000. Kingston is the chief port of Jamaica and is along the southeastern coast of the island. It is covered by the “Blue Mountains”, which is thickly covered which tree ferns. The Blue Mountains experiences an average of 200 inches of rain annually, resulting in topsoil erosion and an abundance of streams. Peasants nurture coffee, usually grown on large plantations, in the valleys of the mountains. It is amongst the most expensive coffees in the world and is exported mainly to Japan.
This paper is an analysis of the political and social aspects of hip-hop and reggae, as well as, addressing the commonalities of the music itself as they have developed and changed over time. This analysis produces the holistic view reflecting the interconnectedness of these two genres of music.
The first communication concept relates to empathy and empathic communication, both Bob and Ziggy Marley display this throughout their music. Empathy defined by Julia T. Wood, “is the ability to feel with another person, to feel what she or he feels in a situation. Our feelings tend to be guided by our own emotional tendencies and experiences” (78). In the fullest sense, this implies putting yourself into the other person’s shoes, to experience their life, so that you really understand and feel; pain, anger, frustration, joy, spiritual uplift and happiness. Bob Marley is empathetic in nature, he is “someone who appears to speak for the people. It is his music, his life story, his worldview and the way he carries himself -- he seems like an extension of the people and their leader. He seems like a sort of Cultural Senator, a man who represents his people” (Toure 2017). Bob Marley expresses empathy throughout his song “Get Up Stand Up,” by giving us examples of what life was like in the 1960’s in Jamaica. Paying close attention to the words and the connotations associated with those words, we can get an idea to what was going on during that era. From the beginning, reggae was political, as the work of Bob clearly attests. When he chants, “Get up \ Stand up \ Stand up for your rights!” you can feel how important this issue is to him. By translating this one lyric, you can imagine the details of his experiences and the emotions associated with them. The lyrics of this song relates to the struggles and inequality of the society and the harsh realities of a post-independent Jamaica. Nearly the entire song has a political slant to it in some shape or form. The political unrest which was taking place at the time was extremely intense, this song urged people to raise and stand up and fight for their rights and to be proactive.
Reggae is a genre of music that originated in Jamaica during the late 1960s. It is known for the heavy and strong emphasis on the bass within the background beat. Reggae was perceived as a kind of music used to express feelings about the social, political, and economic hardships in Jamaica during the late 1960s and early 1970s. It was performed by musicians from black ghettos who used unhurried beats to make a style of music of their own. Reggae became an important part of the lifestyle of many Caribbean islanders; expressing a sense of pride of their Caribbean culture.
Reggae, “a generic name for all Jamaican popular music since 1960, is defined as a ‘West Indian style of music with a strongly accented subsidiary beat” (Chang). Reggae music is a great style of music that was popularized by one of the world’s most famous musicians, Bob Marley. Personally, I never listened to it until I made it to college, and it has quickly become one of my favorite genres. For that reason is why I chose to write this paper on Reggae music. This genre is a very calming and relaxing style of music, which helps me when I am trying to focus on doing important tasks such as homework, including this paper. In this proton of the paper I will be looking into the history of Reggae music and the development of this particular
The most notable influence would be from Africa, this has been broke up into three categories dance, religious, and work/entertainment. Religious music has been influenced by Kumina, Pocomania, and Rastafari. This music is usually accompanied by drums and chanting, songs can also include singing and other instruments. Other forms of music that are becoming popular on the island are rocksteady, ska, soca, calypso, and jazz. In Kingston the fusions of the 90’s continue to influence the 21st century and has created a new sound led by producers Sly Robbie, Steven McGregor (son of Freddie McGregor), Daseca, Skatta Burrell, and Don Bennett. All these men have all forged a new mixture of hip-hop,
Rhythm and blues, also known today as “R & B”, has been one of the most influential genres of music within the African American Culture, and has evolved over many decades in style and sound. Emerging in the late 1940's rhythm and blues, sometimes called jump blues, became dominant black popular music during and after WWII. Rhythm and blues artists often sung about love, relationships, life troubles, and sometimes focused on segregation and race struggles. Rhythm and blues helped embody what was unique about black American culture and validate it as something distinctive and valuable.
The beginning of this Cultural Revolution began because of the high level of American cultural literacy the Jamaican immigrant came to the United States with. The country of Jamaica had been flooded with Americans goods and products since the 1950s. “From American rhythm and blues to Hollywood Western movies, Jamaicans took the offerings of First World power and changed them from ‘below.’”(177) During the 1970s, the Jamaican immigrants were able to create in the American paradigm of the music business. This shift was founded mostly on the Jamaican concept of “bricolage”(178) which translates to making new products out of minimal resources. One of the most recognized Jamaican immigrants that generated the idea of hip hop was a man by the name of Clive Campbell, aka DJ Kool Herc. One of Campbell’s more popular creations was when he extended the ‘break’ of the song by switching between two of the same records. The idea of ‘break’ dancing came from this early innovation. In addition, Clive Campbell created applied the ideas of using a vocalist during the break. Some of the catch phrases used consisted of “to the beat y’all” and “you don’t stop.”(180) These ideas that Campbell was introducing into American music were concepts that were already being used in Jamaica. If Jamaicans had never immigrated, hip hop would have never become as popular as early as it did.
In conclusion, you have take many factors into consideration to understand the mainstream cultural reaction to this material and why its highly varied. In both Jamaica and urban poor US cities, there are a lot of gang-related violence that have helped fill a leadership void in the community among a dispossessed people. There is poverty in that it’s almost a trap to get out of as black families have been struggling for so many years to break the cycle that has kept them apart of this system. This system sets them out for a life of crime that could eventually lead them prison. For example, especially in the United States, black males are so prevalent in the prison populace in the country in that on any day, a male with no degree is more likely in jail than working. And so with such struggles like this, a lot of it is then reflected in reggae and hip-hop music. “As hip-hop gained popularity, musicians who’d actually lived something resembling the life they sang about in their song faced the temptation of
Bob Marley Bob Marley was a singer, guitar player, and songwriter who gained stardom popular in the genre of reggae music. This Jamaican artist was also well known for being a major symbol of the Rastafari religion. All throughout his life he faced many obstacles and hardships. But as a result of these difficulties, he was able to pour out all his emotions into his music and create many renowned works. Even after his death, Bob Marley will be remembered for changing the world of music.
In this essay, I will be examining the musical genre of Afrobeat which was created by Fela Anikulapo Kuti. Afrobeat first came to be in the late 1960’s during the Civil Rights Movement in America. Fela Kuti a Nigerian, was able to create a genre that has change the way we view music today. Afrobeat is made up of two different words, “Afro” and “Beat”. “Afro” correlates with “African organized sound while beat is a rhythmic counting pattern in relation to such music” (Oikelome, 2013). Therefore, the meaning of Afrobeat is the unique African rhythmic patterns of such music. The coming of this genre is very interesting since the man behind it has quite a story.
We learn from looking at the literature that modern-day Reggae had its wellsprings in the African-American soul music of the 1950s and 1960s. The insistent, off-beat rhythmic pattern of soul music became a feature of reggae in the late-1960s and early 1970s. However, the aforementioned pattern mostly appeared in the form of the trade-mark galloping backbeat of ska, which was a tip-beat and dance-oriented predecessor of reggae. Ska had a limited expressive range and its galloping speed needed to be slowed down if it was to enjoy a larger audience. Fortunately, it did slow down and, by the end of the 1960s, something known as “Rock Steady” was beginning to surface (Anderson, 206-208).
The music of Jamaica began five centuries ago, when Columbus colonized the land of the Arawak Indians. This dates the start of oppression by first the Spanish and then the English in this area of the Caribbean. Blacks were brought in as slaves by the English, and although Jamaica has had it's independence since 1963, the tension of authority and control still reigns. Jamaica is a story of injustice, international influence, ineffective governing, and unequal distribution of wealth; all of these elements provide a solid base for the theme of oppression and the need for a revolution and redemption in Jamaican music. Reggae in particular reflects these injustices, and the feelings, needs and desires to change the lifestyle that Jamaicans have historically lived. Reggae music has two meanings. It’s generic name for all Jamaican popular music since 1960, West Indian style of music with a strongly accented subsidiary beat. Reggae can also refer to the particular beat that was extremely popular in