Job Design and Motivation

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There have been sufficient changes regarding job design over the past decades, including the rising popularity of new practices such as employee involvement (Maxwell, Richard & Sandra 2008). With new induction of theories, an analysis to illustrate the similarities and differences was made between the content and process theories; chosen theories being the two-factor theory and equity theory respectively. Implications of integrating various theories like the Job Characteristics Model (JCM) by Herzberg and Oldham (1980) and the four major approaches to job design will be discussed, focusing on how they influence motivation in practice. 1.0: Content and Process Theories Content theories focus more on the intrinsic factors that affect…show more content…
Both theories recognize that rewards drive an individual. The two theories also neglected the factor of individual characters. In a comparison of extroverts and introverts, Gray in 1975 (cited in Furnham, Eracleous & Premuzic 2009) postulated that the former react more positively with rewards, and that the latter are more motivated to avoid punishment. Findings from studies (Gray 1975; Gupta 1976; Furnham 1997; Furnham et al. 1999, cited in Furnham, Eracleous & Premuzic 2009) support this theory that personality factors have measurable influence on work motivation. Research by Schmitt et al in 2003 (cited in Latham & Pinder 2005) also shows that personality traits influence an individual’s job satisfaction and performance. 2.1: The Differences In terms of differences, the two-factor theory presented a set of distinct factors that when experienced, will drive a person (the possibility of promotion or opportunities for personal growth are some examples listed by Herzberg) but equity theory concerns with the perception of an individual, which in the process of comparison, evoke a psychological state that acts as a factor of motivation. Although both theories agree that rewards are motivators, Herzberg and Adams place different levels of emphasis on the impacts that extrinsic and intrinsic rewards
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