Reflective teaching

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In 1933 John Dewey (1933) introduced his theories and concepts on how people think. He identified a number of different modes of thought including reflection. He saw reflection as an aspect of thought, a rational and purposeful act that is more then mere thinking. Dewey contrasted routine action with reflective action, laying the roots of reflective practice in teaching (Zwozdiak-Myers, 2012, p. 5). In his notion of reflective action he described a willingness to engage in self-assessment, which required flexibility, analysis and social awareness (Pollard, 2005, p. 13). His reflection described a willingness to consider different possibilities and the ability and desire to recognize various opinions (Zwozdiak-Myers, 2012, p. 5).…show more content…
Reflection-in-action is used more by teachers with existing knowledge of teaching and experience of the learning process and is used to assess the student participation, knowledge, understanding and learning during the lesson (Howells, 2014). A third process of reflection is a proactive reflection known as reflection-for-action (Collier, 1999, p. 174). Howells (2014) uses this third process of reflection, before-action, which allows her to consider her lesson before it takes place. This process of reflection allows the teacher to be in a position to consider what will be taught, how it will be taught and he or she can develop an inner attitude of gratitude that will positively influence the attitude of the learners. Reflection does not always occur on the same level and, is depending on the circumstances and experiences of the teacher. Reflection will be influenced by the teacher’s knowledge of the subject matter, her understanding of the teaching process as well as her personal circumstances and attributes. Howells (2014) identified these levels as technical, practical and critical reflection. The technical level is concern with “effective application of educational knowledge and skill”, the practical level describes “an experience so that a subjective perception or commitment to a certain theory or system” is noticed and critical reflection is “indicated by a
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