John Kotter 's ' Eight Stages Of Implementing Organizational Change

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Abstract
This paper will identify John Kotter’s eight stages of implementing organizational change, as depicted in his book Leading Change. This paper will also intertwine Kotter’s teachings with information from authors John Ivancevich, Robert Konopaske, and Michael Matteson and their textbook Organizational Behavior and Management. Change is inevitable. Managers will undoubtedly face change within their organization. Kotter’s processes of implementing change, further supported by principles and theories in Organizational Behavior and Management, will be examined throughout the duration of this paper. Kotter’s work compliments the findings and teachings of Ivancevich, Konopaske, and Matteson’s text. Upon conclusion, this paper will
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Stage 1: Establishing a Sense of Urgency
The first stage in the progression of implementing change within an organization, as detailed in Leading Change, is to establish a sense of urgency (Kotter, 2012, p. 37). Employees will be affected, whether it be adapting or making sacrifices, in order to embrace change within the workplace. Through establishing a sense of urgency, an organization can encourage a sense of cooperation among the workforce. “With complacency high, transformations usually go nowhere,” stated Kotter, “few people are even interested in working on the change...” (Kotter, 2012, pg. 37-38). Kotter further stated that low urgency among employees causes difficulty in uniting a group to be a credible guide to change (p. 38).
Organizations can face change for any number of reasons. Managers must be the leaders in change in order to influence employees. Complacency is an obstacle to change. According to Organizational Behavior and Management, “It is management’s responsibility to show employees why they should want to change” (Ivancevich, Konopaske, & Matteson, 2014, p. 507). By creating a sense of urgency, employees can recognize the need for change. The ability of employees to recognize the need for change combats the problem of complacency. Kotter, in Leading Change, states
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