Citation: Armstrong, E. A. et al. ""Good Girls": Gender, Social Class, And Slut Discourse On Campus". Social Psychology Quarterly 77.2 (2014): 100-122. Web. 17 Feb. 2016.
In “The XYZ Express”, Sanday relays the stories of two women intimately involved in the culture of a typical fraternity and its brothers. One woman, Alice, expresses opinions consistent with the normalization of victim blaming and an absence of “collective responsibility” (72). Alice believes that women, including herself, who put themselves in certain situations are inevitably “asking for it.” She does not possess a clear definition of rape, especially because the girl featured, Laurel, “didn’t care enough to protect herself” (73).
What is even stranger is that women fully enforce this sexual double standard. Over 99% of woman agree that women enjoy sex as much as men do, yet when asked to describe a woman who has had many sexual partners, over 59% percent of women used words that fell under the negatively connotative ‘Promiscuous’ category, using words like “slut,” “cheap,” “loose,” “whore,” “easy,” and “dirty.” Twelve percent of women even used words that would suggest that sexually liberal woman are psychologically damaged, using words like “insecure,” “lonely,” “desperate,” “needy,” and ‘unfulfilled.” Only 8% of women tagged a sexually liberal woman in the more positive category of “sexually focused,” the respondents feeling that “these women were uncommitted and focused on sex rather than the relationship” (Milhausen and Herold). In addition, “Women were more likely to discourage a female friend from dating a highly experienced male that a male friend from dating a highly experienced female” (Milhausen and Herold). This fact furthers the case for women’s involvement in maintaining the double standard. In a one study researchers found that “Women will endorse a sexual double standard in which women are judged more
In the book, Hooking Up, the author, Kathleen Bogle, devotes most of her research to interviewing male and female undergraduates and alumni. Throughout her book, she uses various methods to expose the complexity of hookups and the actualities of the gender “rules” on college campuses. The techniques Bogle uses are: explaining the norms of the hooking up culture prior to the twentieth century, describing how the ambiguity of the term “hooking up” on college campuses creates misconstrued ideas about other college students, and comparing the difference between males and females in the hook up culture.
America is a complex and diverse web of individuals marked by social stratification, a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy (Macionis, 2011, p.204). The film People Like Us: Social Class in America discusses the class system, social stratification based on both birth and individual achievement, which the American people use to define others (Macionis, 2011, p.206). It explores the many variables that contribute to the determination of a person’s class; such as, ancestry, education, and money. Ancestry will be a main focus because it has such a strong influence on the class system of today. The film provided an informative and entertaining
For example, the social class has five labels, lower, working, middle, upper-middle, and upper. These labels are then portrayed of the general approach used in popular language and by researchers (Bird and Newport 2). In the article “Counselors’ Social Class and Socioeconomic Status Understanding and Awareness” by Jennifer M. Cook and Gerard Lawson, it explains how socioeconomic status is an
Slut-shaming is defined by many as a process in which women are attacked for their transgression of accepted codes of sexual conduct, i.e., of admonishing them for behavior or desires that are more sexual than society finds acceptable.
Presently an ongoing turmoil between women is the insulting and shaming of one another’s sexual tendencies which have been inflicted upon society by the misogynist double standards imposed by men. In doing so, women are belittled in their slut shaming and are therefore degraded and neglected in their social life. Collectively Elizabeth A. Armstrong; Laura T. Hamilton; Elizabeth M. Armstrong; and J. Lotus Seeley composed an article, ‘ ' 'Good Girls ' ': Gender, Social Class, and Slut Discourse on Campus’ in 2014 for Social Psychology Quarterly (p. 100-122), utilizing observations on social psychology, gender, and culture to argue that undergraduate females exploit shaming to construct social barriers around status groups—along with overseeing sexual behavior and social relations among females. Within the study, the primary focus is what determines the right of the discrimination between supposed good girls and the promiscuous alongside how it functions in the select college females within a university dorm hall. Attention is also drawn to the fact that men are encouraged to have sexual activity in general whereas women are restricted to minor contact within relationships or face the detrimental judgement of society.
Does social class change the amount of problems people have? The truth is, no matter what social class you are, everyone will always have problems, just like in The Outsiders by S.E. Hinton. Even though the Socs have much more money than Greasers, they both equally end up with the same number of difficulties. Using the novel, including two articles,”A Generation Struggling: Rich Kids are Losing” and “Alarming Number of Teens are Quitting School to Go to Work,” the effects of money, low income, and stereotypes from both groups are discussed.
From this point in the discussion we turned to Nicole’s chosen academic publication on sexual double standards and sexting. The article asserts that boys accumulate positive ratings by possessing and exchanging images of girls’ body parts. Such images operate as a form of currency and value for guys, but for girls the images they hold of boys do not hold similar status. Girls develop a negative sexual reputation in which they are seen to be dirty and promiscuous if they sext whereas guys are praised for essentially perpetuating masculine
“He’s a Stud, She’s a Slut” and forty-nine other double standards every woman should know by Jessica Valenti talks about the double standards women deal with on a daily basis, and how these double standards affect every woman. Valenti mentions some examples of double standards and how it affects women in the society. These double standards are perceived as acceptable to be applied by one group of people, but are considered unacceptable when applied by another group. In “She’s a Slut, He’s a Stud”, Valenti gives notable examples which I totally agree with as regards to how double standards affect young women in the society. In her examples, she gives an insight on how she had experienced double standards because she has a vagina.
Hurtado (2010) states “individuals, by definition, exist within social relations … [influencing] the practice of norms, values expectations, motivations, histories and languages, as filtered through culture,” (pg. 30). This suggests gender or race does not decree difference in research results, but a complex entanglement of social statuses and positions coming together. Stewart (1992) indicates power relations (dominant vs subordinate groups) influence the various personality traits occurrences and consequences. “For subordinates, agreeableness may make survival possible; for dominants, it is entirely optional,” (pg. 61), clearly illustrating how social relations construct “differences” among social
In her article, ““Feminist Criticism” from Critical Theory Today: A User Friendly Guide (2006), author Lois Tyson endorses the idea of “bad girls” versus “good girls” in the world today. She feels that people view feminism through only two different lenses; the positive and also the negative perspectives of women. The norm of the “bad girls” is that they “violate patriarchal norms in some way: they’re sexually forward in appearance or behavior, or they have multiple sex partners” (Tyson 3). In other words, Tyson is acknowledging that these women are also known as “whores” or “sluts”. This is the only way these women are looked at through these lenses. Along with this, Tyson also explains that since they violate patriarchal norms, “‘bad
Personality is a ‘dynamic organisation, inside the person, of psychophysical systems that crate the person’s characteristic patterns of behaviour, thoughts and feelings’ (Allport, 1961, p.11). Various terms were used to define personality across the description of individual differences from various perspectives (Maltby, Day & Macaskill, 2007, pp. 9). Personality psychology is spread wide out therefore there are significant researches done throughout to understand personality, one of the research in describing and explaining gender differences in personality. Although, this topic may seem evolved, it was not until the 1970’s when significant studies were piloted to learn gender differences in personality. To understand the emphasis and analysis of gender differences in personality, this essay will aim to approach theories and research evidence to confer the gender differences in personality. It will cover the aetiology of where these differences originated, followed by biological perspective to determine the gender of one self (male or female). Also, dig further into how personality theory of traits can explain the differences with evidence. However, firstly a brief account of male and female differences will be explained below.
Given that the structure of gender qualities has been a large part of our views, in regards to a variety of issues, a number of people take exception to variances from within these rules. Keeping this in mind, we will discuss the reasons why many individuals are discouraged from crossing traditional gender traits, and closely examine parts of the article assigned for this paper.