Justice and the Soul in Plato's Republic

Decent Essays
One of the core arguments of Book IV of The Republic lays out a psychological theory, according to which, the soul has three parts, or faculties, or types of motivation. Plato’s argument begins with the observation that souls contain conflict;

Conflict in the soul implies different parts that are opposed to each other (436b-438a).
Desire is opposed by the calculating part of the soul (438a-439d).
Spirit is different from both desire and the calculating part (439e-441c).
Therefore, from (1), (2), and (3), the parts of the soul are identical in number and function with the parts of the city (441c).
Therefore, virtue in the individual person will be structured the same way as virtue in the city (441c-442d).

Plato sees inner conflict
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Therefore proving Socrates right to have called justice the virtue of the soul (by premise 4) in his discourse with Thrasymachus.
If the soul is as Plato described it, it will function smoothly only though the rule of its calculating function and well-trained expression of its spirited part. Anyone who has experienced inner conflict would agree that existence is more desirable with out it. Moreover, since the calculating part recognizes the demands of morality, it’s rule within the soul will produce actions most in accord with the strictures of ethics. Thus the soul that functions best by nature will also be the best behaved: the just soul is a happy soul.
Furthermore, Socrates as argued that the well-organized soul, which he makes analogous with the just city, is the healthy soul. However, when Glaucon and Adeimantus initially challenged Socrates to show that the just man could be happy despite his misfortune, they meant one who was just in the ordinary sense of the word, one who performed actions through the convention of society were deemed to be just. Socrates’ definition consists in a balance of power among parts of the soul, even supposing that someone with a soul in the condition would enjoy life more than anyone who is in a state of mental anguish, what good does that do to the one who obeys legal and moral rules.
Socrates suggests that those with just souls, when they behave according to conventional rules of justice, do so not out of blind adherence to
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