Juvenile Justice System. The Federal Juvenile Delinquency

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The Federal Juvenile Delinquency Act defines juvenile delinquency as, “any act that is otherwise a crime, but is committed by someone under 18 years of age (“Juvenile Justice, 2007”)”. This act sets forth rules in which state laws must comply with in regard to juvenile court procedures and punishments. A majority of states have a criminal culpability set at 18 years of age, however culpability age can differ depending on the state. Certain states base whether a juvenile’s case should be held in juvenile court or adult court simply on the crime committed. Constitutionalist used to argue that juvenile court was unconstitutional because the principles of a fair trial and individual’s rights were denied. Their primary
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The United States Supreme Court has made decisions on five of the most important cases concerning juveniles. The cases include Kent v. United States (1966), In re Gault (1967), In re Winship (1970), Mckeiver v. Pennsylvania (1971), and breed v. Jones (1975). In the case of Kent v. United States the Supreme Court found that courts must provide the essentials of due process in transferring juveniles to adult systems. In the case of In re Gault the Supreme Court found that in hearings that could result in commitment to institutions juveniles have basic constitutional rights, which would include the right to receive notice of charges, the right to be represented by counsel, the right to confront and cross-examine witnesses, the right to avoid self-incrimination, the right to receive a transcript of the proceedings, and the right to request appellate review. In the case of In re Winship the Supreme Court found that in the case of delinquency the state must prove its case beyond a reasonable doubt. In the case of Mckeiver v. Pennsylvania the Supreme Court found that jury trials are not constitutionally required in juvenile court hearings. In 1968 Congress passed the Juvenile Delinquency Prevention Act and it was later revised in 1972. The purpose of the Act was to help assist state and local communities in providing community based prevention programs and/or services. The Prevention Act also focused on helping to train
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