Katharine 's Comfort Theory For Adult Open Heart Surgery Patients

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Applying Katharine Kolcaba’s Comfort Theory to Adult Open Heart Surgery Patients
Cynthia Heibler
University of Cincinnati

April 12, 2017 AbstractThe leading cause of death in the United States according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), as of 2014, is heart disease ("Leading causes of death", 2017). The use of open heart surgery in eligible patients, such as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or a cardiac valve replacement are two surgical ways to extend the life of those living with heart disease. The recovery phase for these surgeries is crucial for the recuperation and future health of the patient. Dietary modification, exercise and personal health habits need to be adjusted to be conducive to a
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The three types of comfort are defined as (a) relief comfort— “the state of having a specific comfort need met”; (b) ease comfort— “the state of calm or contentment”; and (c) transcendence comfort— “the state in which one can rise above problems or pain” (Kolcaba, 2003).
All of the dimensions of comfort must be met by the patient, the family and healthcare provider to enable healing or peaceful death, return to previous health state and promote health-seeking behaviors (HSB). Concerning the adult open heart surgery patient, achieving comfort in the form of relief, ease and transcendence is important for early ambulation, coughing and deep breathing, for participating in physical therapy and performing health-promoting behaviors such as dietary changes or smoking cessation.
State of Science

An in-depth review of the nursing literature was completed to establish the state of science in reference to providing comfort to the postoperative patient after open heart surgery. PubMed, CINAHL and Google Scholar were utilized to complete the investigation using search terms such as “open heart surgery, comfort, pain relief and
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