Kenyan Tourism Industry

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Ecotourism and Sustainable Development in Kenya
By Robertson Ndegwa Ngunyi 罗伯特 Paper submitted for Ecotourism Final Exam to Sun Yat Sen University, Doctorate in Tourism Management School of Business, Department of Hotel and Tourism Management Professor Liu Yan December, 2009
Keywords: Protected areas, Sustainability, Community Based Tourism, Maasai, Safari


Ecotourism and Sustainable Development in Kenya
Robertson Ndegwa Ngunyi

The purpose of this paper is to provide abridgment of the current state of affairs in Kenya, critically examine the impacts and the challenges of ecotourism; investigate the potential of ecotourism as a strategy for sustainable development and suggest ways to improve Ecotourism in Kenya. What are the
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The meaning and use of the term are plagued by disagreements, confusion, and propaganda (Weaver, 1999).The term ecotourism merged in the late 1980s as a direct


result of the world’s acknowledgement and reaction to sustainable practices and global ecological practice (D. Dianatis, 1999). Ecotourism was first defined as “travelling to relatively undisturbed or uncontaminated natural areas with the specific objective of studying, admiring, and enjoying the scenery and its wild plants and animals, as well as existing cultural manifestation (both past and present) found in these areas. ( Ceballos- Lascurain, 1987:14;1991a,b).”

Ecotourism definition by Ecotourism in Australia “Ecologically sustainable tourism with a primary focus on experiencing natural areas that fosters environmental and cultural understanding, appreciation and conservation (Ecotourism Australia, 2003)”.

International Ecotourism Society (2004) “Responsible travel to natural areas that conserve the environmental and sustain the well-being of local people”.

Irrespective of unique perspectives and different definitions, there is considerable consensus that ecotourism must be beneficial to local communities and have a positive effect on protecting the environment (Buchsbaum, 2004). As the term ecotourism has evolved, definitions have become more precise, with stronger ties to principles of sustainable development (Blamey, 2001). Ecotourism’s perceived potential as an effective tool for sustainable
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