Essay Keynesian Economics

1662 Words7 Pages
Macroeconomics is the branch of economics concerned with the aggregate, or overall, economy. Macroeconomics deals with economic factors such as total national output and income, unemployment, balance of payments, and the rate of inflation. It is distinct from microeconomics, which is the study of the composition of output such as the supply and demand for individual goods and services, the way they are traded in markets, and the pattern of their relative prices. At the basis of macroeconomics is an understanding of what constitutes national output, or national income, and the related concept of gross national product (GNP). The GNP is the total value of goods and services produced in an economy during a given period of…show more content…
If, however, some rigidity prevented wages from falling to the point where supply and demand for labor were at equilibrium, then unemployment could persist. Such an obstacle could be, for example, trade union action to maintain minimum wages or minimum-wage legislation. Keynes's major innovation was to argue that persistent unemployment might be caused by a deficiency in demand for production or services, rather than by a disequilibrium in the labor market. Such a deficiency of demand could be explained by a failure of planned (intended) investment to match planned (intended) savings. Savings constitute a leakage in the circular flow by which the incomes earned in the course of producing goods or services are transferred back into demand for other goods and services. A leakage in the circular flow of incomes would tend to reduce the level of total demand. "Real" investment, known as capital formation (the production of machines, factories, housing, and so on), has the opposite effect-it is an injection into the circular flow relating income to output-and tends to raise the level of demand. In the earlier classical models of unemployment, such as the one
Open Document