King Richard Essay

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King Richard

My report is on Richard I, byname Richard the Lion-Hearted. He was born September 8, 1157 in Oxford, England. He died on April 6, 1199 in Chalus, England. His knightly manner and his prowess in the Third Crusade(1189-92) made him a popular king in his own time, as well as the hero of countless romantic legends. He has been viewed less kindly by more recent historians and scholars.

Richard was the third son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, and he was given the duchy of Aquitaine, his mother’s inheritance, at the age of 11 and was enthroned as duke at Poitiers in 1172. Richard possessed precocious political and military ability, he won fame for his knightly prowess, and quickly learned how to control the
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Richard found the Sicilians hostile, and took Messina by storm(October 4). To prevent the German Emperor Henry VI from ruling their country, the Sicilians had elected the native, Tancred of Lecce, who had imprisoned the late king’s wife, Joan of England(Richard’s sister), and denied her possession of her dower. By the Treaty of Messina, Richard obtained for Joan her release and her dower, acknowledged Tancred as king of
Sicily, declared Arthur of Brittany(Richard’s nephew)to be his own heir, and provided for Arthur to marry Tancred’s daughter. This treaty infuriated the Germans, who were also taking part in the Third Crusade, and it incited Richard’s brother, John, to treachery and rebellion. Richard joined the other crusaders at Acre on June 8, 1191, conquered Cyprus on his way there. While at Limassol in Cyprus, Richard married(May 12)Berengaria of Navarre.

Acre fell in July 1191, and on September 7, Richard’s brilliant victory at Arsuf put the crusaders in possession of Joppa. Twice Richard led his forces to within o few miles of Jerusalem. But the recapture of the city, which constituted the chief aim of the Third Crusade, eluded him. There were fierce quarrels among the French, German, and English contingents. Richard insulted Leopold V, duke of Austria, by tearing down his banner and quarreled with Philip Augustus, who returned to France after the fall of Acre. Richard’s candidate for the crown of
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