Kiss Notes : Production of Materials

15685 Words Mar 23rd, 2012 63 Pages
HSC Chemistry Topic 1

PRODUCT ON of MATERIALS
What is this topic about?
To keep it as simple as possible, (K.I.S.S.) this topic involves the study of: 1. POLYMERS FROM PETROCHEMICALS & BIOMASS

2. ALTERNATIVE FUELS - ETHANOL & THE ALKANOLS 3. REDOX CHEMISTRY & BATTERIES 4. RADIOACTIVITY & ITS USES
...all in the context of society's use of energy and materials

but first) an introduction ...
In the previous topic in the Preliminary Course, you learnt about

carbon chemistry of petroleum

Then you will learn more carbon chemistry when you study the

alcohols

and the importance

as a fuel source. and the most important of this group member

TIlls topic begins by taking this idea further. Petroleum not only provides fuels, but is a source of
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"c ' ,/'/
'

Ifi-------

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THIS IS CALLED AN "ADDITION REACTION"

These are just a few of the possible Addition that can occur across the double bond

Reactions

C

Ethylene CzH4
~ ~ is the simplest, and most important of the Alkenes. It is one of the most important Petrochemicals

~

/The double " bond is highly reactive ~

It readily "splits open" leaving a single C-C bond, and creating 2 new bond positions for other atoms/groups to attach to the molecule

~ ~ ~ -

'lR
I
~

because of the variety of products that can be made from it. Its chemical versatility is due to the double C=C bond which is highly reactive and allows many "Addition Reactions" to occur.

,~ ': ,.,

C:.:.:.:.:.: C - ~

I

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Practical Work

Identifying Alkenes with Bromine
You may have done siinple experiments alkene can be quickly and easily differentiated from an alkane. to learn how an identified, and

If it is in contact with a liquid hydrocarbon, the water and the hydrocarbon form separate layers ... they are immiscible liquids. Water, being denser, will always be at the bottom. Bromine is actually more soluble in a hydrocarbon, so when shaken, it will switch to the top hydrocarbon layer, and changes colour from brown to purple. In an alkane (hexane is often used) the colour will change and switch layers, but it will remain co loured because no reaction occurs. In an alkene (e.g. hexene) the bromine tot;\Il)1 loses aU colour because an addition