The theory holds that moral reasoning, the basis for ethical behavior, has six identifiable developmental stages, each more adequate at responding to moral dilemmas than its predecessor.Kohlberg followed the development of moral judgment far beyond the ages studied earlier by Piaget,who also claimed that logic and morality develop through constructive stages.Expanding on Piaget's work, Kohlberg determined that the process of moral development was principally concerned with justice, and
Kohlberg piggybacked off the groundwork laid by Piaget, with his concepts on cognitive development in adolescents. Kohlberg postulated that a newly formed moral stance will guide new behaviors if these actions lead to strife, therefore another stage of morality will be adopted (Bergman, 2002). His stages of moral development followed this pattern: At the preconventional level the child has awareness on what behavior is acceptable or not, and can conform to these standards out of a necessity to avoid punishment; At the conventional level the person understands what the norms of society are and no longer complies with them out of a sense of fear of reprisal,
The Theory of Moral Development is a subject that derived from Jean Piaget's theory of moral reasoning and this theory was developed by psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg. This theory made us conscious that morality starts from the early childhood years and can possibly be affected by several factors such as society, but there are people in opposition to this theory. Kohlberg developed six stages of moral development and it is divided into three levels of development. The three levels of moral development are preconventional, conventional, and postconventional. As stated in Kohlberg's theory, “moral development proceeds in a linear process; it also proceeds steadily from one stage to the next in the order of moral development” (“Kohlberg's slide presentation”). Kohlberg uncovered four stages after Jean Piaget's because he had only discovered two. The stages that Kohlberg discovered after Jean flourish into adolescence and adulthood. He suggested that some people reach the postconventional level. (Oswalt).
Lawrence Kohlberg, a professor at Harvard, creates a theory of human moral development. Since his theory was an expansion of Jean Piaget moral development of children, he elucidates of his theory to have series of stages. Each stage were categorized into three levels: preconventional, conventional, and postconventional. During each level there are 2 stages which are consequent for moral development because they are action that manifest on who we are.
The second level of Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral development is the Conventional Level. The Conventional level consists of stages 3 and 4. Stage 3 is based on interpersonal expectations. Those who are at this stage try to be a “good” boy or a “good” girl and live up to others’--such as close friends and family’s-- expectations. Stage 4 is based on Law-and-Order. They are not only focused on what their family and friends say; they are now focused on society. These stages are usually reached by early teens. They don’t blindly follow rules;
To resume the second stage of Kohlberg's theory is called Conventional which is said to be typical in the adolescents and adults and it is when one may know that an action is morally gracious or wrong but prefers to please society's expectations. The third most detailed part of all three stages of the theory is called the Interpersonal accord and conformity which is when a person does something that may just be correct to society's point of view.
Lawrence Kohlberg was an American phycologist who also was the author of the three stages of moral development. Kohlberg graduated from the Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts in 1945 after serving in the merchants marines. Lawrence was also working on a ship owned by Zionist military organization which would try to smuggle Jewish refugees into Palestine past the British blockades (Doorey). Once Kohlberg was done serving in the military organization he came back to the U.S and went to the University of Chicago. He then began teaching in different place and settled in Harvard where he started to become interested in Jean Piaget’s moral developments for children. He got inspired from this and began to develop his moral
This is when company rules, policies, and societal rules formed a considerable amount of my moral and ethical behavior. By being visible at such a young age to the adult world and adult responsibilities gave me a broader range of exposure to conventional moral reasoning and shaped many of the decision I had to make during this time. I learned the importance of respecting others, the conformity of behaviors that is expected by others, and I began to understand the principles of justice as an ethical concern. Kendra Cherry, Psychology Expert, describes Level 2 – Stage 3 & 4 (Conventional Morality) of Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development as being, “Often referred to as the "good boy-good girl" orientation, this stage of moral development is focused on living up to social expectations and roles. There is an emphasis on conformity, being "nice," and consideration of how choices influence relationships”
Stage 1. Obedience and Punishment Orientation. Kohlberg's stage 1 is similar to Piaget's first stage of moral thought. The child assumes that powerful authorities hand down a fixed set of rules which he or she must unquestioningly obey. To the Heinz dilemma, the child typically says that Heinz was wrong to steal the drug because "It's against the law," or "It's bad to steal," as if this were all there were to it. When asked to elaborate, the child usually responds in terms of the consequences involved, explaining that stealing is bad "because you'll get punished" (Kohlberg, 1958b).
The second level is Conventional reasoning where a person adopts their standards from others suchs a family, or the government. Stage three of Kohlberg’s morals people seek approval from others and want to maintain good relations. A scenario when this will occur might be when a teenager joins the football team in high school because his dad is a huge football fan, even though the boy may not like that sport. The teenger is seeking aproval of his dad and is conforming to his interests. People in stage four tend to stick to laws to find peace, order, and to work efficiently. For example a person in a community may believe that justice is important to keeping everyone safe and
Kohlberg’s Moral Stages help to explain how people act the way that they act. Level 1 is Preconventional/Premoral. This is where “the child is responsive to rules and evaluative labels, but views them in terms of pleasant or unpleasant consequences of actions, or in terms of the physical power of those who impose the rules.” Level two is conventional/role conformity where there is good boy/good girl orientation and authority and social order are determined. Level three is post conventional/self-accepted moral principles where norms of right and wrong are defined in terms of laws or institutionalized rules. Then there is where the morality of individual principles of conscience where if one acts against social rules they feel self-condemnation and guilt. These principles help to not only see how people are acting at the time but they also help to show how over time that may be the phone call or afterwards how a person will
Lawrence Kohlberg who was a psychologist the framework in establishing six different stages of moral development that occur at three different levels. Each level contains two separate stages. Level I and stage one is considered more associated with younger children prior to reaching adolescence with a focus is on self (Klein, 2016, p. 27). At stage II level one, an individual still to act out of self-interest but starts to realize that punishment is delved out based on the severity of the misconduct or infraction that is taking place (Klein, 2016, p. 28). The concern here
Kohlberg’s stages of moral development were based on a moral philosopher by the name of Lawrence Kohlberg. His main interest was to observe children during growth to develop and conclude which stages they best fit into. After observing both adults and children, he concluded that, “Human beings progress consecutively from one stage to the next in an invariant sequence” (“Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development”). All of the 6 stages he created, represent the morality in which a child or adult can be at; he created an age zone for each stage. There are a total of 6 stages but each main concept consists of 3 levels. Level 1 is the preconventional stage. This stage focuses on punishment/obedience and how the person decides to act due to the
Goldman Sachs should have been punished for its behavior in the years leading up to the financial crisis. Goldman ended up settling with the federal government for $110 Billion, which I do not believe was sufficient based on the magnitude of problems created. This amount should have been much larger, and at minimum they should have forfeited the $14 Billion paid to them by AIG. (Inside Job, 2011) In addition, AIG should have had the right to sue Goldman Sachs for fraud. It was in the public’s best interest to keep Goldman up and running, however additional penalties could have been put on a repayment schedule to keep them solvent. Instead, you had Goldman giving out large bonuses.
The theory of moral development, advanced by psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg is one of the most well-known persuasive theories in the field of cognitive science and stems from the work of Jean Piaget, which hypothesizes on the direct correlation that exists between moral and cognitive development. Kohlberg speaks of the appearance and understanding of what is right and wrong from childhood to adulthood and explains by this transition through the identification of various levels of morality known as pre-conventional, conventional and post conventional. People will make decisions based on the understanding of the possible outcome and through reasoning of morals. (Target Concept)