Kotter Change Model

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Competitive imperatives of market forces and customer demands in today’s environment have led to the emergence of less hierarchical and more flexible organisations (Doyle, 2001). In working towards this paradigm shift, a distinction and clarification of the relationship between leadership and management in the change process needs to be addressed. According to Caldwell (2003), change leaders are executives or senior managers at the very top of the organisation who envision, initiate or sponsor strategic change of far-reaching or transformational nature by challenging the status quo, communicating a vision that employees believe in, and empowering them to act. In contrast, change managers are usually middle level managers and functional…show more content…
This may include using models such as the SWOT analysis and Michael Porter’s five forces. Leaders would then be able to determine how best to respond to the environment, establish a more effective alignment for the organisation and communicate this need for change that is convincing and accurate (McManus & Botten, 2006). Kotter’s step 2 of building a powerful coalition is often combined with step 3 of getting the vision right as organisations bring senior and middle managers as well as employees together with a shared vision for the organisation. Participation and involvement from all levels of the organisations in building a successful coalition not only acts as a motivation for employees to support the change effort by reducing resistance but also facilitate a creation of a good vision that will help to clarify the direction in which the organisation needs to move and the strategies in achieving these desired vision (Armenakis & Harris, 2009). Without a sensible vision, a transformation effort can easily dissolve into a list of confusing and incompatible projects that can take the organisation in the wrong direction or nowhere at all (Kotter, 2007). In a recent study of major change, it was found that employees are highly critical of even well thought-out attempts to communicate change and multiple communication channels are preferred when communicating a change vision, plan and process (Elving, 2005;
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