Kupffer Cells: The Liver

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The liver may be viewed as the major part of the body and plays both the role as a producer and a garbage disposer. It synthesizes plasma proteins (e.g. albumin, coagulation, complement and acute-phase proteins), along with other molecules such as glycogen, cholesterol. The liver also has a central role in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, bile production, detoxification and drug metabolism (Langhans W. 2003 and Matsumoto et al 2000). Liver is composed of parenchymal cells (i.e hepatocytes) performing various functions such as energy synthesis and bile production The non-parenchymal cells of the liver, are represented by 3 cell types— Kupffer cells, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LECs) and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) (Kmiec Z. 2001)
1. Kupffer cells are tissue macrophages which are
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HSCs or fat-storing cells or Ito cells are located in the perisinusoidal space (Hellerbrand C, 2013). It stores vitamin A, synthesis extracellular matrix and regulate the contractility of sinusoids (Friedman SL, 2008). After liver injury, cytokine TGFβ activates HSCs, which transforms into a myofibroblast (Asahina K, 2012). Due to activation of HSC retinol storage capacity is lost and HSCs express contractile fibers, and secrete extra-cellular matrix (ECM) proteins. This ECM causes liver fibrosis and later cirrhosis (Kmiec Z. 2001 and Kocabayoglu P, Friedman SL, 2013)
RAGEs expression and localization in different cells of the liver varies within and across species. The primary evidence of RAGE in liver tissue was reported when it was found in bovine hepatocytes although it was not detected in Kupffer cells or LECs (Bret J et al 1993). Recently, elevated levels of RAGE in the hepatic steallate cells (HSCs), hepatocytes and bile ducts of normal human livers and weak expressions in LECs and Kupffer cells are observed (Butscheid M 
et al, 2007). In Fig. 1, the types and sites of the cells that constitute the liver along with AGE receptor localization i.e. RAGE is
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