Kyoto Protocol Of The Unfccc ( 2005 )

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The Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC (2005)

1. Introduction

Founded on the belief that humans are ultimately responsible for global warming, the Kyoto Protocol was signed in 1997 and made effective in 2005 with the aim of reducing national quantitative greenhouse gas emissions by 5.2% (compared with emissions in 1990) in industrialised countries worldwide. This would equate to a 29% cut overall by 2010. The protocol intends to specifically reduce global emissions of “carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulphur hexafluoride, HFCs and PFCs” ( The protocol was later revised in its second commitment period stating that an 18% cut (compared with 1990) in emissions between 2013-2020 would be its next target. The Kyoto Protocol created “three market-based mechanisms...known as the ‘carbon market’” to support its targets (UNFCCC). These mechanisms covered emissions trading, the clean development mechanism (CDM) and joint implementation. Combined, the mechanisms are geared towards encouraging sustainable development using technology and investment, reducing emissions in an economically viable way and stimulating developing countries to reduce their emissions too. International cooperation was essential for the Kyoto Protocol to be enforced and achieve its aims. As the protocol seeks to reduce greenhouse emissions globally, efforts are needed from all industrialised countries emitting harmful gases into the Earth’s atmosphere. Without adequate participation
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