Lab Report : The Gram Stain

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Lab Report 1-The Gram Stain
Eric Zuberi
Lab section 1
February 8, 2015

This report represents my individual effort. I did not receive or offer aid to anyone when performing this assignment, nor did I plagiarize any material.

Signed: _____________________________________________ Eric Zuberi I. Introduction

In all areas of biology, it is easy to see that structure is related to function. This statement holds true in microbiology as well, the study of microorganisms, including bacteria. One characterizing feature of bacteria is the cell wall, which can generally (although not in all situations) be categorized into one of two categories: either Gram positive or Gram negative. Gram positive bacteria’s cell walls are composed of a large peptidoglycan layer (up to 90% of their cell wall). Within this large peptidoglycan layer, one can find techoic acids, which contribute to the maintenance of cell wall structure, and lipotechoic acids, which attach to membrane lipids. Gram positive bacteria that act as pathogens can also potentially release exotoxins, which can have very dangerous effects on humans. Gram negative bacteria, on the other hand, have a very small layer of peptidoglycan in their cell wall, which is surrounded by an outer membrane. Within the outer membrane, one can find the lipopolysaccharide layer, which is one of the most distinguishing factors of Gram-negative bacteria. It is important to note that Gram negative bacteria fail to possess techoic
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