Labeling Modern Biological and Psychoanalytic Theories in Crime: An Analysis

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An analysis of labeling, modern biological, and psychoanalytical theories in crime There have been many approaches taken in attempting to uncover the factors that contribute and influence criminal behavior. Criminological theories aim at determining the social, psychological, and biological factors that influence criminality. Three theories that attempt to investigate that causation of crime and criminal behavior are labeling theories, modern biological theories, and psychoanalytical theory. Labeling theories are based on social constructs. "Labeling theory maintains that people are often led to believe the socially constructed definitions that are applied to them; therefor, they live up or otherwise embrace the stigmatizing characterizations assigned to them" (Arrigo 78). Furthermore, labeling theory argues that legal and mental health institutions' characterization of individuals as "guilty offenders" or "mentally ill" eventually become a part of an individual's identity so much so that it becomes a "debilitating, lifelong burden" (79). In an attempt to destabilize labels, criminal offenders sometimes deny responsibility through the use of neutralization techniques. These techniques include 1) the denial of responsibility; 2) denial of the victim; 3) denial of injury; 4) condemnation of the condemner; and 5) an appeal to higher loyalties (79). Labeling theories are heavily dependent on how society views individuals as these perspectives define the label the individual

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