Labeling Of An Illness Or Disability From A Medical Professional

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Labelling can occur by diagnosis of an illness or disability from a medical professional, to avoid labels The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is used. The DSM contains the symptoms of mental illness in order to ensure the correct diagnosis. Labels can also be applied to individuals that are considered different from others in the community by behaviour or personal qualities. To avoid this in psychological scientific writing The American Psychological Association (APA) have guidelines to reduce labelling and language bias. Words must be carefully chosen when referring to a person or persons that they are accurate, clear, specific and un-biased. We must be sensitive to labels and avoid labelling individuals, a possible solution is to put “person with …” It is important to acknowledge participation therefore descriptive terms such as; students or respondents are used and also give accurate information. (APA, 2011).
Kring, Johnson, Davidson and Neale (2012) displayed the diagram of The Four characteristics of Stigma. Labels are applied to individuals that differentiate them from others, negative perceptions are linked with the label which causes discrimination and leads to stigma of the label. The stigma effectively ends with rejection of the individual from the community. It is believed that discrimination can cause emotional harm to the individuals and their families. It was found that stigma was associated with low self-esteem according to

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