The normal pH value for the body fluids is between pH 7.35 and 7.45. When the pH value of body fluids is below 7.35, the condition is called acidosis, and when the pH is above 7.45, it is called alkalosis. (Tortora, G., Derrickson, B., 2014) The major effect of acidosis
Respiratory Acidosis and Alkalosis Activity 1: Normal Breathing 1. At 20 seconds, pH = 7.4 2. At 40 seconds, pH = 7.4 3. At 60 seconds, pH = 7.4 4. Did the pH level of the blood change at all during normal breathing? If so, how? The pH did not change during the normal breathing.
Laboratory 6: Lactase Enzyme Lab Report Introduction Enzymes are types of proteins that work as a substance to help speed up a chemical reaction (Madar & Windelspecht, 104). There are three factors that help enzyme activity increase in speed. The three factors that speed up the activity of enzymes are concentration, an increase in temperature, and a preferred pH environment. Whether or not the reaction continues to move forward is not up to the enzyme, instead the reaction is dependent on a reaction’s free energy. These enzymatic reactions have reactants referred to as substrates. Enzymes do much more than create substrates; enzymes actually work with the substrate in a reaction (Madar &Windelspecht, 106). For reactions in a cell it is
In order to generate a bicyclic lactone in this experiment, a Diels-Alder adduct was produced. The bicyclic lactone to be generated was cis-1,3,3a,4,5,7a-Hexahydro-5-methyl-3-oxo-4-isobenzofuran-carboxylic Acid and was produced using a Diels-Alder reaction. The product was also analyzed quantitatively using percent yield. To prepare the Diels-Alder adduct 0.40 g of 2,4-hexadien-1-ol was added to a flask, then 5.00 mL of toluene and 0.40 g of maleic anhydride were added to the flask in that order. The mixture was warmed and stirred to induce a reaction. The reaction progress was monitored using a TLC plate with 30:70 hexane used as the mobile phase and silica gel as the stationary phase. The TLC plate revealed a new spot for the crude product, indicating the reaction had begun.
Base 8.93 Pastel green A Neutral 7.14 Very Pale Pink B Acid/Base/Neutral pH Reading Color of Extract Solution Acid 4.26 Light Pink C Acid 2.22 Pink D Base 10.05 Light green E Table 2: Consists of color extract taken from a red cabbage for a natural indicator. The pH reading that was measured by using the pH meter and the result of the pH reading to determine whether the solution was acidic or basic.
13B – Distribution and constituents of fluids P3: Distribution and constituents of body fluids – M2: Explain functions of the constituents of body fluids - Constituents of body fluid - The human body consists mostly of water, and is a major constituent to the human body and vital organs; of
An increase in calcium inside muscle cells activates processes that generate heat and production of excess acid, leading to a continual increase in body temperature and then acidosis.
NaCl Concentration and its Effect on Lactase Enzyme Activity Amanda N Garcia Bio Lab Section 22 Texas State University Abstract Lactose is a sugar that can be put into smaller molecules, glucose and galactose. Lactose is when you are not able to digest milk and dairy meaning that the enzyme lactase that breaks down lactose is not functioning properly. ONPG was used as a substitute for lactase because even though it is colorless it helps show enzyme activity by turning yellow. This experiment measured the absorbance ONPG when exposed to lactase within an environment of different salinity’s. The enzyme, lactase, was obtained by crushing a lactaid pill and then was added into four cuvettes. ONPG and salt solution of different concentrations were added and their levels of absorption was measured by a spectrophotometer. The results showed that higher salt concentrations have a lower level of absorption. There were 4 cuvettes and within those cuvettes that solutions within them were being tested and the results showed the more salt solution added with the lactase the lower the absorbance. The less salt solution there was a higher rate of absorbance. The data supported the hypothesis that with increasing NaCl concentration there would be a decrease in enzyme activity.
Introduction: An Enzyme is a protein that in essence speeds up biological reactions. So that would mean that a Catalase is an enzyme reaction that decomposes hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. It is primarily found in the liver and it is important in protecting the cell from damaging oxidative reactions.
As shown in the graph above, a constant pH 7 was recorded throughout the increase of acid and base. With this observation, it was clear that the liver responded in the same manner as the buffer #1. Therefore, it can be concluded that liver has a buffer characteristic in it. Another solution named buffer #2 was tested with HCL and NaOH, which results had a similar pattern to the tap water, however the rate of change in pH was quite different. The rate of pH change in buffer #2 was gradual but a sudden drop from 8-3 when 20 or more drops of HCL were added, where tap water has a higher rate of change from 1-3 drops and then became constant from 6 drops onwards. The increase in pH for Buffer #2 occured after 10 drops of NaOH was added which was quite different from the rate of change in tap
〖CO〗_2+H_2 O→ H_2 CO^3→H^++HCO_3^- (1). Production of H+ will cause plasma pH to fall below 7.4. Normally, increases in H+ concentrations are buffered mostly by haemoglobin, however buffers can only resist small changes in pH. The HCO3- levels increase slightly, but are likely to still remain within normal levels of 22 to 26 mEq/L. This is because equilibrium changes in concentrations is slight compared to the large compensatory changes (1). Renal mechanisms can assist in excreting H+ and reabsorbing HCO3-.
CAUSES — The causes of lactic acidosis can generally be divided into those associated with obviously impaired tissue oxygenation (type A) and those in which systemic impairment in oxygenation does not exist or is not readily apparent (type B) (table 1). However, in reality, there is frequently overlap between type A and type B lactic acidosis. In sepsis, for example, there is both an increase in lactate production resulting from microcirculatory failure and also a decrease in lactate clearance that is not solely due to diminished oxygen
'Various parameters for which contrasting observations have been reported in connection with lactase decline' (3)
Acidosis is a condition in which there is an excessive acid condition of the body fluids or tissues, the body contains too much acid. There are many ways acidosis can occur. One way is when there is an extreme bicarbonate in the body. Bicarbonate is a chemical acting as a buffer, it keeps the blood’s pH from becoming too acid or to basic. Another way a body can become too acidic is there is a buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood. This can happen if you have breathing issues or poor lungs. Both the lungs and the kidneys can atone to a minor or major pH imbalances. The body’s pH level should be at a 7.40, acidosis is any pH at a 7.45 or higher. There are two different types of acidosis: respiratory and metabolic, both can be diagnosed using
The recovery yield of lactose was expected to be 2.4g/ 50ml as the milk contained 12g/ 250ml (4.8% w/v). The experimental yield was 1.2g, thus the percent yield is 50% of what was to be expected. This low recovery yield could be due to the β-anomer of lactose remaining soluble in aqueous solution and would have required very concentrated solutions at high temperatures to precipitate. This lab focused on the crystallization of α-lactose by placing it ethanol, where α-lactose is slightly insoluble. Thus, there would be a large amount of the β-lactose lost.