Example in Setting: children learn the word sounds or phonemes and practice these, then they can put them together to make words.
“Types of learning that Ausubel examined include: reception learning vs. discovery learning and the rote learning processes, such as memorization. However, to make these types of learning meaningful, three things must occur: The learner must employ a meaningful earning set to any learning task. The material to be learned must be potentially meaningful. The most important condition for meaningful learning is what learners already know and how that knowledge relates to what they are asked to learn. … a schema is a data structure for representing the generic concepts stored in memory. And, within schema, there are pieces known as schematas
Another components of the SIOP framework is Strategies. Strategies would include techniques, methods, and mental processes that enhance comprehension for learning and retaining information. It is important to have Strategies in SIOP to help language development because as stated in the SIOP, “English Language Learners can benefit from knowing specific strategies to use that increamse comprehension including the following: Survery, Question, Read, Review Recite, Quextion in a Can, Gallery Walks, Split Page Note Taking, and Similarties and Differences Using a Venn Diagram.” Therefore, the teacher would use scaffold throughout the lesson and decrease the support of the teacher as students acquire experience. Interaction is an important
Valuing Language Study: Inquiry Into Language for Elementary and Middle Schools written by Yetta M. Goodman in 2003, explores language in its entirety and how it relates to students. Goodman has performed research in early literacy, reading, and writing processes, and has published over 160 works. In this book she concentrated on ideas such as critical moment teaching, strategy lessons, linguistics, literature and power. She offered the reader ideas of activities and investigations to use in the classroom to provide students with a better understanding of how the language they use affects their everyday lives. These examples can be modified to fit the needs of elementary and middle school classrooms. The activities force students to reflect on ideas such as “correct” language, language as control, inventing language, social issues, and more. These are all ideas we have explored and will continue to investigate in this course.
Language Arts, a required course in my elementary,middle and high school, a subject which I have grown to hate less ,and a class that made me detest all grammar. Even though I stated that I have grown to hate language arts less, my relationship with ELA remains ambivalent and has been influenced by many factors.
In order to thoroughly engage learners and their specific brain dominance it is important to discuss subject matter with a big picture approach and then to discuss the details. This will involve learning from the left side as the small details flow into a larger subject. The right side of the brain will also be engaged when learning a subject through visualization of the big picture. In today’s school systems subjects tend to be taught the same: different subtopics are broken up and taught at different times until all material is covered. The big picture of the new material is not usually united to the many small groups of details that create it. This makes learning much more challenging instead of a natural reaction that teachers should strive for.
The cognitive development stage of attaining expertise is the first stage in which the individual develops what is call declarative encoding of the skill in which “a set of facts relevant to the skill is commit to memory” (Anderson, 2010). The learner will rehearse the facts as they perform the skills, for example, a child is learning to ride a bike he or she will rehearse the steps as the skill is perform. So the child will remember where the pedal is, learn how to hold to the handle, learn to balance, and learn to pedal and these steps become the set of problem-solving to ride the bike. Basically the child or learner is trying to figure out what needs to be done and the actions here are usually controlled in a conscious way. Learners also experiment with strategies in order to figure out the ones that work and the ones that does not. This knowledge that is acquired is in the declarative stage because the child’s performance cannot be called skilled. The child recalls facts about the skill of riding as he or she tries to ride the bike and pay attention in a step-by-step execution of the skill
Vygotsky’s concepts of zone of proximal development and the more knowledgeable other person has led to the idea of scaffolding. Scaffolding, which encompasses both ZPD and MKO, is seen in almost all classrooms in today’s society. Scaffolding is a temporary support mechanism that aids students when they need it and then relinquishes control when the assistance is no longer needed. According to Lipscomb, Swanson and West (2004), scaffolding is used in classrooms by the “development of instructional plans to lead the students from what they already know to a deep understanding of new material,” and “execution of the plans, wherein the instructor provides support to the students at every step of the learning process.” Scaffolding encompasses the role of the teacher. The teacher acts as the most knowledgeable other to the student and then assesses the current knowledge of the students. The teacher decides which knowledge level the students should be performing at, and that gap between current knowledge and abilities and their potential is the zone of proximal development. In order for
No two people learn the same way and no one person learns only one way. Thus providing various learning activities when delivering instruction promotes the transfer of learning. During a fourth grade practicum, the teacher was introducing new vocabulary. She had the students skim through the chapter and choose words to develop the list. When the kids were done, she then had them create a KSD (know it, sort of know it, don’t know it) chart and rate each word accordingly. The students were then asked to provide a definition of each word, or as the teacher stated, “my guess on meaning.” The teacher then collected the charts and developed a list of vocabulary by eliminating words that didn’t need instruction (dog, door, fence, etc..) and low-frequency words (skullduggery, ossify, sibilant, etc..). The new list was presented to the class and she verbally defined each word using
Zoltan Kodaly chose a child-developmental approach when developing his method. This approach teaches skills in the order and pace in which the child develops rather than subject logic. “In a subject-logic approach there is no relationship between the order of presentation and the order in which children learn easily. The subject matter is simply organized in a fashion that seems reasonable in terms of content.”
I am basing my descriptions of my Average Learner’s academic development on their past work and observations. They can read and understand simple texts. In fact, the history textbook for this class is within their reading level and so they can read and understood information therein. In addition, they can listen and follow verbal instructions. For them, I do not have to repeat nor display my instruction on the whiteboard nor through PowerPoint slides, but I do sometimes have to speak slower to assure they can hear what I say. They can write simple and complex sentences, with a high degree of clarity. (I will provide further information about this when I describe their language development later in this paper). Collectively, they can collaborate in groups, preferably of no more than three students in a group, because anything more is not conducive to learning. The reason they work well together because most know each other from being in the same classes last year and the on the same sport team—this class has many baseball players. Insofar, this has proven to be advantageous, by having them in groups, and I could not be more satisfied with the results.
When learning a L2, the learner is engaged in the acquisition of sounds, words, structures, and discourse through conscious attention to these units, but s/he may also acquire them subconsciously (Van Polen, 2013a). Alternatively, and especially in the classroom setting, the conscious, deliberate type of learning usually prevails. Drawing upon this distinction in L2 acquisition, two views have been formed. First, incidental learning that is most often defined as “picking up” words and structures when a L2 learner engages in a communication task such as listening or reading, and when s/he focuses on the meaning of the language. Secondly, intentional learning, referred to as “the deliberate committing to memory of thousands of words (their meaning, sound, and spelling) and dozens of grammar rules” (Hulstijn, 2003, p.349). The terms have received various interpretations from researchers (Ellis, 1994b; Huckin & Coady, 1999; Gass, 1999), which are also sometimes identical with the two more general terms of implicit and explicit learning indicating the degree of involvement of consciousness (or awareness) in the act of learning. Although all
Language and Art share many similar tendencies. In language, as with earlier forms of Art, representation plays a large role. Language acts as a representation of some elaborate envisioned concept(s), Writing as a representation of a sounded phonic language, and Art as a representation of some subject(s). Within these mediums exist elements that make Art and Language and, by extension, Writing successful. ese are the signifiers. e signifiers are built imperfectly, they summon up signs other than those intended based on frequency of usage, misusage and place contextually. ey are influenced by a multitude of extra-textual forces. It is from these axioms, that Structuralism and thence, Deconstructivism take form.
Teaching may be considered communicating knowledge concepts to students. Our philosophy as educators must be grounded in a sound belief as to the process of imparting knowledge concepts as our presentation of these knowledge concepts whether in bits and pieces or the sum total reflect our appreciation of the learner’s ability to assimilate and accommodate new information and what portion. Therefore, as an emerging educator I believe that the presentation of new information must be predicated on the existing schema in order to facilitate a progressive mode of learning.