Lathe Characteristics

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SUMMARY

The Lathe is the father of all machines tools and is recorded in the early history of many races. As interchangeable manufacturing and mass-production principles were developed, it became necessary to create machine tools capable of producing parts in large quantities.

This report aims to consider five different "Types of Lathe" in relation to their manufacturing application, as well as, comparative of important aspects for manufacturing and mass production. It will concentrate on the traditional centre lathe and its development into: production lathes.

Definitions, graphs and figures are also included in this report.

§ CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION 4

1.1.PROCEDURES 4

1.2.TOPICS COVERED 4

1.3.TERMS OF REFERENCE 4

2. THEORETICAL
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[4]

An engine lathe is shown diagrammatically in (Figure-1): it consists of a horizontal bed supporting the headstock, the tailstock and the carriage. All machine tools must have a means of supporting or holding the workpiece. The tailstock can be clamped at various positions along the bed to accommodate workpieces of various lengths. Short workpieces need only be gripped by the chuck.

Figure-1

The basic lathe requires a skilled operator and the quality of work produced will depend on his/her care and attention. For production work it is desirable to eliminate the possibility of variation and error, and to this end mechanical stops are often fitted to the carriage to allow accurate return to position and also to disengage power feeds when the required cut is completed. [4]

The capstan lathes are ideal for manufacture of simple and complex turned parts, both from bar and blanks. The blanks can be preturned, forged or cast.

3.2. PRODUCTION LATHES

Production Lathes are generally used when a large number of duplicate parts must be produced. Capstan and Turret Lathes, Single-Spindle Automatic Lathes, and the CNC Lathe are the common machines in this group.

3.2.1.Capstan and Turret Lathes

Capstan and Turret Lathes are essentially similar in their general arrangement and operation. They differ in many ways from the centre lathes. They are more rigidly constructed, more powerful
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