Protocol Architectures developed specifically for: 1. Devices to communicate 2. Vendors to have more marketable products 3. Customers to insist on standards based equipment The OSI is a reference model whilst TCP/IP is the suite which is the most widely used. Description of Open Systems Interconnection (OSI Model) Developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) It is made up of seven layers and each layer: 1. performs a subset of the required communication functions 2.
protocol/Internet protocol is used to transmit the data to hosts in network. This is used in network topology communication establishment and data transmission purpose. TCP/IP is a two layer protocol high layer is TCP and low layer is IP. Small packets data are transmitted by TCP and it gets small packets grouped and form original data. IP protocol forward these data to particular destination. 2.7 What are some advantages of Layering seen in TCP/IP Architecture? The advantages to layering are as follows:
include: I. Saying things you know are not true: Goldman’s analysts said many things that were not true to investors including saying that a security was a good investment when indeed it was not. II. Giving or allowing false impressions: Goldman’s layering strategy allowed the false impression that the stock price of the investment firms had increased or that the stock was very popular and wanted, but in fact, Goldman bought 90 percent of the stock to give this false impression. III. Buying influence
one or more protocols at each layer. 2.6 TCP/IP: Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) are the two protocols which were designed to provide low level support for internetworking. The term is also used generically to refer to a more comprehensive collection of protocols developed by the U.S. Department of Defense and the Internet community. 2.7 Advantages of Layering in TCP/IP architecture: Layering is the process which is used and helped to reduce the overall problem, which is
more protocols at each layer. 2.6 TCP/IP: Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) are the basic communication protocols, which were designed to provide low level support for internetworking. This term is generally also used to refer to a more generalised collection of protocols developed by the internet community and U.S. Department of Defence. 2.7 Advantages of Layering in TCP/IP architecture: Layering is the process which is used and helped to reduce the overall problem, which
It connects the computer networks globally by using standard Internet protocol suite. d. Ethernet- it is a family of interconnected computer networks. e. Star – It is a type of computer network topology that is comprised of central hub or switch through which messages get transmitted. Following diagram shows star
number of layers is not exactly set, depending on the source this number can range between five and seven layers, with each layer providing services to the layer above it. For the purposes of this discussion however, we will address the five layer model. The five layers of the TCP/IP Protocol Suite are: Application, Transport, Network, Network Access (or Data Link), and Physical. (White, 2013, p. 15) Application This layer supports all of the applications on the network. Some of the most frequent
SATELLITE SYSTEMS World’s first satellite “Sputnik” - successfully launched by USSR 1957. Number of satellites has significantly increased to over 1,100 operational satellites, with over 2000 obsolete satellites since the first launch. Satellites either orbit the earth as a geostationary or non-geostationary. Geostationary - stationary in the sky above a fixed point on the surface. The increasing amount of old satellites and space debris has risen concerns for collisions with current satellites.
principles of masculine order and rationality towards the Postmodernistic values of feminine imagination and emotional spontaneity. An example of this would be the economy, which adapts to the ebb and flow of the supply and demand of society at large. The internet is another example of an intricately complex network of information and ideas. World of Warcraft imitate real world races and cultures, whilst still using mythical monsters and beasts instead of solely human characters. This serves as a hybrid
oriented DBMS is superior to the relational database on some specific counts, primarily because it can satisfy the complex demands of the market today better than the any other. Secondly while the relational data base stores data as tables, the object model stores data as objects and creates associations. This can create a multiple set of attributes for each object such that the data base is more flexible to the requirements that may be housed for different sets of data having both similar and dissimilar