Leadership can be defined as the process of identifying a goal, motivating others, and make them to achieve the mutually goals (Giltinane, 2013). According to Humphreys (2002), successful leaders do this by applying their leadership knowledge and skills. A good leadership is not only good at management, but also use different leadership styles in different situations. A successful corporation must has a good leader who have the flexible ability which can provide a suitable leadership to make the company successful. Furthermore, there have no perfect leadership styles in the world. Different leader have different leadership styles which also have the different strengths and weaknesses (Ali & Waqar, 2013). Leaders need to consider
Leadership is, and always has been, a vital aspect of social and economic constructs. It is essential to the survival of societies, industries, organizations, and virtually any group of individuals that come together for a common purpose. However, leadership is difficult to define in a single, definitive sense. As such, theories of leadership, what constitutes a great leader, and how leaders are made have evolved constantly throughout history, and still continue to change today in hopes of improving upon our understanding of leadership, its importance, and how it can be most effective in modern organizational cultures.
Abstract: There are numerous definitions of leadership, all of which contain elements related to people (the leader and the follower(s)), communicating in person or by the written word, actions (organizing, directing, coaching, and/or motivating), and for a purpose (meeting a goal(s) or accomplishing a task(s)) (ADP 6-22) (Fisher 2015) (Bolden 2013) (Hogan 2005). Additionally, everything done occurs within a given context. Effective leaders are poised, proficient, pertinent, and practical in the application of the art of leadership. This means leaders are ready to engage the group with effective methods and
According to organisational behaviour by McShane, leadership is defined as influencing, motivating and enabling others to contribute towards the effectiveness and success of the organisation of which they are members (page 382, McShane).Becoming an effective leader depends on the leader’s leadership style. Successful leaders have vision and charisma, also the leader should have an ongoing personality, talkative, careful and self-disciplined. The leader must also have self-concept
The topic of leadership is historically one of the most widely researched when it comes to explorations of organizational behavior. The success of any institution or organization is pegged on the quality of its leadership because it is the determining factor on the pattern and speed at which it achieves its growth goals. Leaders are responsible for steering an organization toward its goal by mobilizing resources (both human and material) and maximizing their efficiency. The key deliverables for many leaders include employee well-being, teamwork, adherence to organizational processes and procedures, innovation, crisis
The Hofstede Centre (n.d.) defines culture as the “collective mental programming of the human mind which distinguishes one group of people from another.” Chipulu, Ojiako, Gardiner, Williams, Mota, Maguire, Shou, Stamai, and Marshall (2014), note that “culture can be at once tangible and observable; latent and unobservable; or even an abstraction altogether” (p. 367). Culture therefore has many dimensions. Some aspects of culture can be observed by analyzing symbols, ceremonies, dress, and other aspects. On the other hand, some aspects are not observable from the outside, but have to be experienced. Looking only from the outside gives us only a glimpse into the culture values. A large part of culture is the unwritten rules of how things are done. This part of culture is not necessarily observable to an outsider. To fully understand the cultural values of an organization, you need to be inside the organization with access to those with years of work experiences.
According to Schein, organitional culture is the learned result of group experiences, and it is to a large extent unconscious. Schein considers culture to be in three-layer phenomenon (see fig. 1).
In corporate America the term used to describe a person in a position of power is “Manager”. A leader can be a manager, but a manager is not necessarily a leader. Leaders motivate, challenge, and influence others to achieve goals. Great leaders have the necessary skills and attributes which allow them to connect with the team and organization. Being a leader is not the same as managing an organization. Leader’s posses the interpersonal skills needed to influence others to achieve a goal willingly. Leading is a major part of a manager’s job. Leaders do not need to be a manager to lead people, but managers must know how to lead as well as manage.
The culture of a group can now be defined as: A pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group learned as it solved its problems of external adaptation and internal integration, that has worked well enough to be considered valid and therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems. ¹ (Schein 373-374)
Leadership is something that can be taught (Northouse, 2015. There are some valuable theories, which will be discussed later in this paper, how a leader can develop into having a strong influence in any daily aspect of their lives. Also later in this paper it will be discussed the various styles of leaders that can affect the behaviors of the actions of each leader. Each leader can learn these attributes or some of them just have the natural capability of being a leader.
Schein (1992; 2004) identifies three levels of culture: (1) artifacts; (2) espoused values; and (3) basic underlying assumptions. Artifacts include any
Leadership plays a critical role in the achievement of organizational growth and exhibit the best performance in the industry. Leadership determines the success of an organization as it is important to understand that the companies that perform excellently well in the industry are inspired by the conduct and attitude of their leaders. Leaders need to institute measures and mechanisms that will substantially improve the performance of their companies and project a good corporate image. It is important to acknowledge that corporations never fail but leaders do as they are charged with the primary mandate of ensuring that all the operations of the companies are structured for excellence.
Schein (1985) described a model based on the three levels of culture consisting of the basic assumptions, values, and the artifacts and creations. As summarized by Schein (1985), the first level of basic assumptions is the core component of culture, and mostly comprises of human behavior, truth, reality, and individual relationships. These basic assumptions develop with time when members of a social group find a way to handle a problem and they transfer it to the next generation (Schein, 1985).
Schein (1985) outlined a model established on the three levels of culture, which consists of the basic assumptions, values, and the artifacts and creations. As summarized by Schein (1985), the first level of basic assumptions is the essence of culture, and predominantly comprises of human behavior, truth, reality, and individual relationships. These basic assumptions mature with time when members of a social group find ways to handle significant problems, and the solutions are gradually transferred to the next generations (Schein, 1985).
“A set of basic assumptions – shared solutions to universal problems of external adaptation (how to survive) and internal integration (how to stay together) - which have evolved over time and are handed down from one generation to the next.” (Schein, 1985). Culture is divided in into 2 categories one is National Culture and second is Organisational Culture.