Leadership Characteristics Of High Performing Schools

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Distributed Leadership
Clearly, administrators and teachers must work as a team for substantive changes in teaching and learning to occur. One theoretical construct that supports the sharing of leadership constructs among all school stakeholders is the idea of distributed leadership (Spillane, 2006). Spillane, Halverson, and Diamond (2001) in their research funded by the National Science Foundation to determine the leadership characteristics of high-performing schools, discovered that the most effective schools valued the roles of all individuals in a school who had leadership responsibility. From this research they proposed a distributed perspective for thinking about leadership structures within schools and school districts. Other research confirmed these findings of a positive correlation between distribution of leadership and school performance (Hallinger & Heck, 2009; Harris, 2004). However in later work, Spillane and another colleague questioned the ability to determine causality from this relationship and called for fundamental research to determine if distributed leadership truly has positive effects on school effectiveness and student achievement, and if it does, in what manner (Spillane & Healey, 2010).
The concept of distributed leadership is not easily defined (Carson, Tesluk, & Marrone, 2007). In his attempt to craft an understanding of the concept, Spillane (2005) emphasizes that distributed leadership is about leadership practice rather than the mechanics
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