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Leaders impact people's daily lives and futures. In good times and bad, there is always a need for strong leadership. According to Fesler (1960) leadership is a social process, it cannot exist without leader and followers. Leadership is results in followers’ behavior that is goal-directed in some sort of organized setting. In brief, leadership is a process by a person influences others toward the attainment of group or organizational goals. Like the words said by Keith (2003):” Leadership is ultimately about creating a way for people to contribute to making something extraordinary happen”. The development of leadership studies has three phases: trait theory, behavior theory and contingency theory. According to Robbins& Judge (2011), the…show more content…
But different to Ohio studies, Michigan studies added 'Participative leadership' to their findings,( Vroom& Jago 2007) they argued that effective leadership is to build a cohesive team which works together rather than a set of individuals. Such as holding meetings to share information and making a group for decisions or problem-solving. Another difference is these two styles of leader behavior of Michigan studies were believed as single continuum, the leaders only can choose one style to implement, even both the production-oriented and the employee-oriented leadership behaviors appear to offer positives and negatives. However, even though it is not necessary to focus on both people and production at same time, but it was concluded that the leaders who show a propensity to act in one dimension might have and edge. (Ratzburg 2011) Unlike the Michigan Studies, these two dimensions of Ohio studies were not viewed as opposite ends of a continuum, but as independent variables. Thus the leader can implement both initiating structure and consideration at the same time and exhibit a great diversity of degrees. The leader behavior approach was assumptive that there were certain behaviors that would be universally effective for leaders. Unfortunately, empirical research has not
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