Learning Theories

702 Words Mar 18th, 2013 3 Pages
As centuries changes, so too does the learning styles of students’ changes. Hence different learning theories such as behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism have been used to improve learning, performance and class involvement of student. Each of theories has distinctive features based on their individual perspectives of the learning process. In this essay, I will mainly discuss 3 things: 1) the main tenet of behaviorism and constructivism, 2) a comparison between cognitive and constructivism and 3) the implications that constructivism has for the classroom teacher with the central task of teaching.

Behaviorism

Behaviorism is an approach which denies (with greater / lesser insistency) that consciousness has any relevance to
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Thirdly, reinforcement and punishment is strongly embedded in this approach. Due to the fact that behavior is the result of external stimuli, theories suggest that a behavior can be modified through the use of reinforcements and punishments. Reinforcements are stimuli that encourage a person to do the behavior again, while punishments discourage the behavior. For example, preventing your child from using the computer when he breaks curfew would be considered a punishment because you want the behavior of breaking curfew to stop. Behavior modification through reinforcement and punishment is called operant conditioning.

Constructivism
According to Kristinsdóttir (2001) “ the view of constructivist, learning is a constructive process in which the learner is building an internal illustration of knowledge, a personal interpretation of experience.” This representation is continually open to modification, its structure and linkages forming the ground to which other knowledge structures are attached. Firstly, learning is an active process in which meaning is accomplished on the basis of experience. Although both cognitivists and constructivists view the learner as being actively involved in the learning process ( student centric), the constructivists look at the learner as more than just an active processor of information. Learners create their own meaning of knowledge. Therefore, the goal of
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