Liberal Nature of Indian State

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The state is being perceived as an "organised structural and institutional whole" epitomizing the power relations of society. The state in a developing society arise from historical factors and interacts with society through its decisive role in the economic process of the nation.

To study the nature of any particular state, it is necessary to analyse to relation between state, power, and social classes and the purpose of the state. The liberal democratic form stands on the foundation of democracy.

The liberal critique of the Indian state can be read in the writings of Rajni Kothari, Atul Kohli, The Rudolphs, Gunnar Myrdal.

The state is associated with modernity.
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Gunnar Myrdal criticized the inability of the state to enforce public policies to eradicate poverty or to enforce laws and dubbed the institutional model of the Indian state as "soft state". According to Myrdal, the Indian state was soft as it had no power to rectify institutions that stood in the way of reform and development. As a result, it could not tackle the institution of caste directly, take measures of effective land reform, eradicate corruption or enforce ideas of development effectively through the people.

One consequence of this softness has been the growth of left-wing extremism, which Manmohan Singh called the "gravest internal threat" to the country 's security. Myrdal 's 'hard state ' would have been able to tackle Naxalism which has gravely affected the nation.

The liberal approach focuses on institutions and processes to understand state and political power in India. The state is considered the central instrument of social progress and principal agent of transformation.

According to the Rudolphs, there are two groups characterised in the Indian state, one being the 'owners of production ' and the other being the 'labourer ' group. They analysed the state as a mediator between these two conflicting groups, and in doing so, must remain autonomous in order to maintain structural unity of the state. The role of the state would hence be the "third actor". The Rudolphs believe in
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