Every group had its own suggestions for green infrastructure. The most popular method among the projects was the implementation of green roofs. As every group stated, green roofs can help regulate temperatures inside buildings, saving costs on heating and cooling. They are handy in capturing storm water runoff, which can then be used for food production. Group A did a good job showing these benefits, but neglected to consider the possible detrimental
The most important point of this submission was that it was uploaded to Youtube, allowing it to be seen by the world and inform the general public about these low-impact development technologies. Even I didn’t know some of the benefits and applications of green roofs and permeable pavement before I started this work term so I hope that these videos will introduce the general public more about these technologies. As cities continue to grow, green roofs, permeable pavements, solar panels and other low-impact development technologies have a lot of potentials, so I hope through videos like these they will be more well known and accepted so that our communities could become more green and sustainable in the
Began in USA in 1960s – concerns over limitations of raw materials and energy resources, finding ways to cumulatively account for energy use and to project future resource supplies and use.
“Cost-minimization analysis is mostly applied in the health sector and is a method used to measure and compare the costs of different medical interventions” Springer. Cost minimization analysis is the simplest type of cost analysis. The central focus is that one medical intervention is the same as another, at lower cost. That is the outcomes must be the same.
This method aims to compare two or more treatment alternatives, having equal safety and efficacy. However, it is must that, the two alternatives must be therapeutically equivalent (with the same safety and efficacy). This method is simple and relatively straightforward in which two or more alternatives having same safety and efficacy are selected, their costs are measured, compared, and the alternative with least cost is identified. Therefore, it helps to identify the least costly treatment among the alternatives. As a result, helps to include drug in the formulary, include the drug in health care policies, exclude the drugs with high cost comparatively from the formulary, and to increase the utilization
Manufacturing accounts for a large proportion of energy consumption, in fact, “it accounts for one-third of all the energy consumption in the United States” . With the manufacturing industry, limited resources like oil and natural gases may be consumed to generate the large amounts of energy required. As a result of these processes, greenhouse gases and other harmful emissions may be generated during the processing of materials, and waste disposal may result in additional pollution to the environment. This can lead to harmful environmental consequences in the future. Fortunately, substantial improvements have been made, and manufacturers and consumers are showing great concerns regarding the energy and the environment, even if the results can be relatively costly.
Life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) is a method for assessing the total cost of facility ownership. It takes into account all costs of acquiring, owning, and disposing of a building or building system. LCCA is especially useful when project alternatives that fulfill the same performance requirements, but differ with respect to initial costs and operating costs, have to be compared in order to select the one that maximizes net savings. For example, LCCA will help determine whether the incorporation of a high-performance HVAC or glazing system, which may increase initial cost but result in dramatically reduced operating and maintenance costs, is cost-effective or not. LCCA is not useful for budget allocation.
Green buildings could become one of the main factors to preserve our rapidly decaying environment. There is no easy way to define a green building, but a green building is essentially a structure that amplifies the positives and mitigates the negatives throughout the entire life cycle of the building (Kriss, 2014). There are many definitions for a green building, but all of them include the planning, designing, constructing, and operating of the building while taking into huge considerations of the energy use, water use, indoor air environment, materials used and the effect it has on the site the green building is being built on. The first green buildings dates back to as far as the 1970’s, when solar panels went from experiments to reality. Green buildings were not as popular as they are today due to their extremely high pricing. With technology rapidly growing, solar panels are becoming cheaper and cheaper, making the transition to creating green buildings more affordable. This is the primary reason for the increased growth of green buildings today. A modern company that is paving the way to the growth of green buildings named LEED, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, focuses primarily on new and effective ideas for environmentally friendly buildings projects. With more than 60,000 commercial projects worldwide and 1.7 million square feet being certified every day, LEED is one of the leading groups for promoting green buildings. LEED has popularized the entire
Use phase of the building is the largest stage that impacts environment during the life cycle, so require more attention in the field of energy saving of building. In the initial design stage of buildings, through LCA can help design decisions, such as the appropriate use of zero energy building techniques. To quantitatively assess the energy consumption and environmental impact among all above stages, LCA is undoubtedly the best choice that can full evaluate the impacts during extraction of raw materials, material creation, sale, maintenance, disposal or recycling, also global warming, air pollution, water pollution and other index. Thereby more effectively improving environmental performance is to achieve green building. LCA will provide
Today, companies are increasing their spending on research and development more than ever before. Research and development costs are the costs that a company incurs to either improve its existing products and processes, or develop entirely new endeavors. Thus, as research and development costs are now inevitable for businesses in order to beat out competitors, it is important to understand the accounting treatment for these costs under the guidance of both GAAP and IFRS.
The use of the direct green roof system because of the layers. When adding to the roof design.
In order to accurately measure the results of our engineering solutions, we have created a list of metrics for each objective that will allow us to evaluate if the retrofits are a success or failure. This will let us determine if the engineering objectives are being met and how well potential designs are performing. The first constraint that must be satisfied is for energy retrofits to not increase the amount of greenhouse gases produced by Sechrist Hall. The energy modeling software eQUEST will be used to model hypothetical building conditions if retrofits are installed. The utility usage will then be compared to the baseline energy use of the building. To ensure an overall reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, the utility savings calculated in eQUEST will be translated to CO2 emission data. The amount of each utility saved by installing a retrofit can then be converted directly to money saved using the utility cost figures provided to us by Jon Heitzinger. Then we can compare potential energy savings with the estimated cost to purchase, install, and maintain any retrofits.
The value of property can be determined by a number of factors. These could be size, location, type, design, and age with energy efficiency being one of the weakest factors (DECC, 2013). Nevertheless the need for sustainable properties is growing and may begin to influence the value both in terms of purchasers’ behaviour and occupiers’ preferences (RICS, 2014).
The enclosed recommendation report compares green roofs and white roofs, which I informed you of in my previous letter. The information in this report includes the cost analysis, which examines the installation, maintenance, and replacements costs of each roof type. In addition, the report examines the environmental impact in offsetting greenhouse gases.