Life Span Psychology- Prenatal Development

3073 Words Jun 14th, 2013 13 Pages
Prenatal Development
• In the life span development the shortest is the period of the newborn or infancy
• This period, which begins at conception and ends at birth, is approximately 270 to 280 days in length or nine calendar months.
• How life begins? o New life begins with the union of male sex cell and female sex cell. o These sex cells are developed in the reproductive organs, the gonads. o Male gonad is “testes” and female gonad is “ovaries” o Male sex cell is referred as “spermatozoon” and female sex cell is referred as “ovum”. o Male and female cells differ in two ways o Way 1: in terms of chromosomes
 In mature ovum, there are 23 matched chromosomes (XX)
 In mature spermatozoon, there will be 22 matched chromosomes
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 Cultural pressure from parents, teachers, their peer group and society to develop attitude and behavior patterns.
 Leaning experience are determined by the individual’s sex
 Attitude of parents and other significant family members toward individuals because of their sex.
3. Number of offspring
• While most humans are singleton, multiple births also can occur
• When a ripe ovum
 Is fertilized by one spermatozoon, then singleton birth will occur
 Is splits into two, then identical twin or uniovular birth will occur
• When two or more ova released simultaneously and fertilized with different spermatozoa then nonidentical or biovular or fraternal twin birth will occur.
• Effects on development
 Singleton gain undivided attention of mother, but multiple birth shares it.
 During the early years, babies of multiple births receive less mothering which will make them feel unloved or actually rejected.
 Being subjected to pressures to be alike and being denied opportunities to develop their individualities leaves its mark on their personalities and on their patterns of behavior.
• Common characteristics of twins
 Developmental lag: than singleton in terms of physical, mental, motor and speech.
 Physical development: twins tend to be smaller then singleton
 Mental development: mental similarities are greater

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