Lifespan Development. Influences of Nature and Nurture on a 4 Year Old Child

2298 Words Sep 5th, 2010 10 Pages
Environmental Influences

Throughout this assignment I will be discussing the development of a four year old child. With the support of relevant theories including the work of Jean Piaget and Erik Erikson, I will discuss the environmental influences that promote the physical, cognitive and psychosocial development of a four year old child. I will also review the importance of play in the child’s development and propose an activity of play that would enhance the child’s development.

In the world of a four year old child there is a lot of changing. For in the fourth year in most western societies this is the time they will most commonly begin attending kindergarten/preschool. Energetic and imaginative best
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In addition to physical development, kindergym can also greatly influence the four year old child’s psychosocial development. The kindergym programs are exercised in group environments, with between 20 and 25 children per session. This means there are more children and less area of play. The four year old child must now learn to share and take turns to avoid confrontation and avoid the guilt associated within Erikson’s initiative versus guilt stage. The child is now learning and building on the social competencies required in creating friendships and avoiding consequences and guilt associated with fighting.

Piaget’s view of the child making sense of the world through their own investigation emphasised the importance of the environment rather than other people. Since then his views have been modified to take account of the importance of social contacts. We all need other people to help us learn and young children need adults and other children (Dowling, 2010).

If children can learn to be at ease with others and start to develop a social responsibility for them, then clearly this will affect their personal well being, but will also better prepare them to contribute in a larger social world (Dowling, 2010). The presence of a sibling in a child’s life can support psychosocial development. The competencies required in building friendships are learnt skills and the relationship the child builds with their sibling can offer
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