Lifespan Psychology

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Lifespan Psychology Developmental Theory Key Proponent Stages/ Phases Psychosexual Freud Oral Stage : This occurs from birth to about 1 year. During this stage, the infant 's primary source of interaction occurs through the mouth, so the rooting and sucking reflex is especially important. The mouth is vital for eating, and the infant derives pleasure from oral stimulation through gratifying activities such as tasting and sucking. As a result of the infant being entirely dependent upon caretakers, who are responsible for feeding the child, the infant also develops a sense of trust and comfort through this oral stimulation. The primary conflict at this stage is the weaning process, the child must become less dependent upon caretakers. If…show more content…
Through the lessons learned during the previous stages, adolescents direct their sexual urges onto opposite sex peers, with the primary focus of pleasure are the genitals. Interest in the welfare of others grows during this stage as opposed to the earlier stages where the focus was solely on individual needs. It is also the time when the individual tries to come to terms with unresolved residues of the early childhood. Although the focus is again on the genitals, within this stage the energy is expressed with adult sexuality. While in the phallic stage gratification is linked with satisfaction of the primary drives, the ego in the genital stage is well-developed, and so uses secondary process thinking, which allows symbolic gratification. The symbolic gratification may include the formation of love relationships and families, or acceptance of responsibilities associated with adulthood. Cognitive Piaget Sensorimotor Period: Piaget stated that from birth to age 2, an infant’s knowledge of the world is limited to their sensory perceptions and motor activities, thus the child learns about him/herself and his/her environment through motor and reflex actions. Thought derives from sensation and movement. The child learns that he/ she is separate from his/her environment and that aspects of his/ her environment, the parents or favourite toy, continue to exist even though they may be outside the
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