What did the people of San Francisco suffer after the earthquake of 1906? In order to answer this question, we need to know what the San Francisco earthquake was. The San Francisco earthquake happened in 1906 with a magnitude of 7.8 and caused a fire that burned for 7 days. This was the biggest recorded earthquake in San-Francisco. The foreshock started at 5:12am and 25 seconds later the earthquake started that lasted 40 to 60 seconds, with most San-Franciscans asleep in rooms, they became trapped with only their hope to save them. The earthquake and fire of San-Francisco in 1906 will go down as one of the worst earthquakes in the United States’ history. It’s after affects can still be felt in the California area.
While Verlyn Klinkenborg has good authority on this topic he uses very little evidence that has been researched and proven. He only mentions two scientific studies. One talks about how light attracts animals and the other is a study that connects brightness in neighborhoods. Throughout the essay he gives what seems to be logical evidence that light pollution has a negative effect, but he is no scientist. The use of reliable scientific sources cited in the essay would have been better evidences. Klinkenborg could have supported his argument using sources.
California’s unique geography as a state makes it a very appealing place to call home. From the odd east to west transverse San Gabriel mountain ranges of the Los Angeles Basin, to the bumpy coastal ranges of the Bay Area, any person can find a compatible topographic terrain to their liking. California may seem to be the perfect place to live with its ideal climate and extensive geographic features. However, due to California’s location over the shifting continental plates, coupled with its enormous and also multiple faults, at any time this great state can fall victim to a seismic disaster. After examining evidence from both Rong-Gong Lin’s II Los Angeles Times article of April 18, 2016 and the NOVA videos Killer Quake ( 2006), Earthquake (2007), as well as Geologic Journey II – Episode 3 (The Pacific Rim: Americas) – Part 3 (San Francisco) and The Great San Francisco Earthquake (American Experience ~ 2005), one can take a comparative account of the three major earthquakes of California’s past. Although each earthquake was very devastating on is own; the Great Quake 0f 1906, the Loma Prieta quake of 1989, and the NorthRidge quake of 1994 each amounted to an extensive forfeiture of property and life. Each of these earthquakes created much suffering and loss. It is imperative for each citizen of this great state to understand the damage that a California quake can actually do and be prepared; for the threat of one always looms.
The pictures from the L.A. Times are a snap shot of the devastation that occurred in San Francisco on April 18, 1906, and they are riveting. There are men and women in period dress standing in the streets surrounded by swirls of water, and looking ahead down a hilly street to the plumes of smoke overtaking the city. It began with an earthquake between 7.8 and 8.3 magnitude on April 18, 1906 at around 5:12 to 5:13 AM, and ended in three days of fires with 90 percent of the city in ruins and an estimated 3,000 lives lost. After several days of fires, building and houses laid gutted and in ruins. Why was the earthquake so deadly and how could it cause such devastation?
Bogard starts building his argument from the very beginning of his article. He builds his argument fact by fact to give you multiple reasons to understand the need to reduce light pollution. He states that "the World Health Organization classifies working the night shift as a human carcinogen." Without darkness our bodies are unable to perform some of the daily functions that we need, such as sleep and melatonin production. Without these, we are more likely to develop disorders such as diabetes and depression.
I left for work but had to walk, as no streetcars were running. I was
The green sea turtle occurs throughout tropical and subtropical oceans and is among the largest of the hard-shelled sea turtles growing to as much as 440 pounds and four feet in length. The breeding populations in Florida were listed as endangered in 1978 (43 FR 32800 32811, July 28, 1978) whereas all other populations were listed as threatened (NOAA 2015h). There is a proposal for identification of a North Atlantic green sea turtle distinct population that would be listed as threatened, continuing its current listing status near New York (80 FR 51763 51764, August 26, 2015). They are found in the shallow waters (except during migration) of shoals, bays, lagoons reefs, and inlets, often where submerged aquatic vegetation exists, from Maine south to Florida, and throughout the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea (USFWS 2015n, 2015o; NOAA 2015e). Green sea turtles nests are not present in New York; however, they occasionally are found stranded on or near the shore (NYSDEC 2015ad). Breeding takes places in subtropical to tropical oceans every two, three, or four years between June and September, with peak nesting in June and July (NOAA 2015h; USFWS 2015u). Hatching usually occurs at night, and many green sea turtle hatchlings seek refuge and food in masses of floating sea plants (USFWS
The lighting causes many turtles to die by leading them away from the moon which can cause dehydration, getting run over, Etc. There are turtles being born each year and 100-300 turtles are dying each year due to the lighting on beaches. If the turtles are being affected by lighting on the beaches many things could happen. A few examples are that the turtles will soon be extinct and we soon will not be able to see their beauty. The other animal rates could go down also because some of the animals need to eat the turtles to survive. People should stop putting the lights near the beach now. It kills the loggerhead turtles each year and soon they will become extinct.
Turtles are one of the oldest reptile groups. They are classified as amniotes. They have existed a long time ago, which means they have seen the rise and fall of the dinosaurs and the rise of humanity. Scientists think that turtles have existed for around 157 million years (mosaic 29). Approximately, sea turtles were 65 million years ago (Dobbs 1). This family has survived the passage of time and is threatened by the contamination that humans have created in the ocean. The six sea turtles that occur on the coasts of America are in fact threatened. Sea turtles are very important for the ecosystem, but humans, directly and indirectly, endanger this family. If humans do not stop their destructive habits, we can lose the influence of sea turtles on seafarers. Sea turtles play an important role in the ecology of the ocean, and without turtles, we can see an ecological collapse in the oceans. Sea turtles are one of the few animals in the sea that eat sea grass (Godfrey). Sea turtles act as grazing animals that cut short grass and help maintain the health of the family of seaweed (Godfrey). In recent decades, there has been a decline in the sea grass family. This decrease may be related to the decrease in the number of sea turtles (Godfrey). Sea grass is important because it is a fertile ground for many species of fish, shellfish and crustaceans (Godfrey). The beaches and sand dunes are known for not having many nutrients. When the sea turtles reach
According to the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Energy Information Administration, 15% of electricity generated in the U.S. is consumed by electrical lighting in buildings. This could be reduced mightily with the addition of more natural light in any buildings, one of the first example will be in this humongous school building. “In a 1991 study, the Alberta Department of Education found that students read faster in classrooms lit using natural light,” said an article by Bristolite. And of course, the cost goes down to zero. Natural light is free of charge while still providing a light source. In Wyoming, that light source will be limited somewhat during the winter months. Artificial light is also bad for the circadian rhythm. In a study from the American Medical Association, that “There is no question that lighting suppresses the circadian rhythm. It was suggested that women who work overnight under artificial light can lead to higher risk of breast cancer(LED Inside). Anita Nalk of netdoctor says that “Too much artificial light can also impact our ability to sleep well, think clearly and the regulation of blood pressure and glucose
In Australia, loggerhead turtles nest on open sandy beaches (Environment, 2001). Therefore when hatchlings are born they need to make their way down to the ocean, this makes them vulnerable (Environment, 2001). Baby turtles and most vulnerable when they are scurrying, to the water because there are many obstacles along the way (Nobs, 2004). For example baby turtles mistake artificial lights for the sea and are then more likely to be killed by predators such as birds, raccoons, foxes and cats, which are just a few of the predators these vulnerable creatures face (Marine Bio, 2015). Around 10% of hatchlings from each batch are lost artificial lights each year. To decrease the amount of baby turtles killed we are going to fix how far the artificial lights are between each other. When breeding season takes place there needs to be a rule that four lights every kilometre need to be turned off. This will help by reducing the amount of hatchlings that take a wrong turn towards the light, and attract unwanted predators. This problem could most probably be bought with an organisation called ‘Sand Cloud’. When you purchase one of Sand Cloud’s products, you help to preserve and protect oceans, and Marine Life. 10% of their net profits are donated to saving marine life. In particular turtles. So if this problem was bought up with them they would probably take it up and solve
Light pollution is a comparatively unknown and yet relatively serious problem that is constantly growing. Because of the way most lights are designed they throw light not just down, where it's needed, but also up and to the sides. This causes unnecessary light to be cast that can disorient animals as well as throw off their normal routines.
on the effects and what might happen to make the audience be more interested and want
Sea turtle hatchlings are now having trouble finding their way to the sea because of all the lights from buildings that are built on the coast. They get disoriented when they are born and will wander in the wrong way away from the sea. This leads them to predators that live inland or will even cause the turtle to become dehydrated and die. Humans are also building coastal armoring that is blocking female turtles from reaching a suitable nesting habitat. This is a severe problem in Florida where they have many coastal rock elevations and sand bags. Where all this beach development is occurring thousands of sea turtles are trying to nest. Beach dredging is also having a direct effect on sea turtle's trying to nest. If the sand is too impacted or is drastically different from native beach sediment, the mother will have trouble creating the