Every year a familiar scene plays out in clinic waiting rooms, chairs filled with miserable patients waiting to see their physician with complaints of a never ending cough and a constant nasal drip. More than likely, these patients will receive a prescription for antibiotics, but should they? Most acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs), do not require an antibiotic, the symptoms will resolve themselves over time without antibiotic treatment. Healthcare experts and scientists have warned the public about the dangers of overusing antibiotics, and there are thousands of studies to support that fact, but no one is listening. Patients are convinced they need to have antibiotic treatment, and somehow their time is wasted if they leave empty
Working with newborns and premature babies can be a stressful job. A neonatologist mainly focuses on high-risk cases where babies cannot be delivered without complications, such as heart and lung failure, and many other birth defects. This career is a dexterous job, so it requires a lot of patience and skill. It is expected to grow over the next 10 years, as the medical field is always in need of doctors and surgeons. A neonatologist is a great career for people who like the medical field, enjoy working with others, and have a big heart to care for infants and their families.
Antimicrobial stewardship (AS) can be attained while fostering quality patient satisfaction. Interdisciplinary standards of practice exist to ensure evidence-based prescribing practices yet the pervasive use of antibiotics remains rampant globally. This is a multifaceted topic that impacts primary care prescribers, pharmacists, nurses, pharmaceutical companies, governing bodies, educational institutions, research teams, and the general population. This article will investigate how Canadian nurse practitioners (NPs) are in a prime position to influence an overdue revolution in AS, specifically for uncomplicated viral upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) of children ages two to ten in primary care.
Antimicrobial resistant has been called one of the world's most pressing public health problems. Every time a person takes antibiotics, sensitive bacteria are killed, but resistant ones may be left to grow stronger and multiply. Although antibiotics can help treat bacterial infections, a possible side effect is that they can strengthen certain bacterial strains. Antibiotics are supposed to be used for bacterial infections, but are wrongly being used for both viral and bacterial infections. When we use antibiotics on viral infections, deadly bacteria multiplies and becomes stronger. We can fix this problem by using antibiotics for bacterial infections only.
Research has revealed how overprescribing antibiotic creates several adverse outcomes, including the development of multidrug resistant organisms, Clostridium difficile infection, and increased costs of health care (Myung et al., 2015). The Consumer Report (2015) raised concern for the overuse of antibiotics and how it leads to the loss of the ability to treat serious infections. Doctors,
Antibiotic resistance is when microorganisms, such as bacteria, are able to survive an exposure to antibiotics and these bacteria are now resistant to the effects of these antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance in bacteria has been an issue since antibiotics were discovered. The fact that bacteria can become resistant to our medical treatments such as antibiotics is a natural evolutionary process, but there are certain human contributions that definitely speed up the process. For example, one of the main contributions that will be discussed is the problem of over prescription of the antibiotic drugs. The
Antibiotic resistance is becoming a more prevalent issue. This is a growing dilemma because, not only do patients have the potential to develop resistance, but they also can transmit the resistant bacteria to others (McKellar, 2014). Additionally, it is estimated that over one-third of all antibiotics prescribed to patients are unnecessary (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016). Overutilization of antibiotics is a growing problem due to some patients’ inappropriate demands for antibiotics or misdiagnoses by prescribers, however, underutilization of antibiotics can be just as problematic. Physicians are trained to use good antimicrobial stewardship when prescribing antibiotics; only giving them to patients who truly do have a bacterial infection. This becomes an issue when providers are too cautious and do not prescribe antibiotics in an attempt not to contribute to antibiotic resistance. Unfortunately, this caution could have a detrimental effect on the health of patients who actually need the antibiotics. To combat this issue, we must find a balance between good antimicrobial stewardship to minimize resistance while also taking underutilization into consideration. We, as pharmacists, are at a unique position between the physician and
Antibiotics-resistant organisms have become one of the most serious threats to public health, infecting over two million people and killing approximately 23,000 people annually.1 According to the CDC, “total inappropriate antibiotic use,” such as prescribing unnecessary antibiotics or giving the wrong dose or duration, makes up to 50% of all outpatient antibiotic use,2,3 and in 2009, the United States spent $10.7 billion on antibiotics, indicating that there is a lot of potential money to save.4
In 1992 Shapiro et al. published their research informing providers prophylactic antimicrobial treatment is not routinely indicated  There were a total of 387 patients in the controlled trial, 203 patients assigned to receive amoxicillin and 182 were given a placebo . Either 250mg of amoxicillin or a placebo was given to subjects three times a day for ten days. 15 subjects dropped out and 7
Future studies should concentrate on introducing intravenous antibiotics to pre-hospital setting, which would dramatically decrease the time interval to administration of antibiotics. However, safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness would need to be taken into account through conducting randomized controlled trials to find out the effect on reducing delay, infection and occurrence of adverse effects
Neonatology is a very rewarding, but challenging to take part in. It would be ideal if this reader knew what pediatrics is. In this neonatology research paper there will be five topics discussed. The topics will be ‘What is neonatology?’, “History of neonatology.”, “What is a neonatologist?”, “How much schooling do you need in order to become a neonatologist?”, and finally“What does the daily life of neonatologist look like?” In order to understand being a neonatologist you must be able to understand neonatology, it’s history, schooling, and the daily life of one. Do you really know what neonatology is?
The incidence of neonatal septicemia caused by Gram negative bacilli (GNB) has increased in the past decade and it is often associated with higher mortality rate.(3) The emergence of multi-drug resistant among gram negative bacilli specifically Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing GNB deserves particular concerns, as the treatment options available for multiple drug resistant (MDR) strain is often limited. Inappropriate initial antibiotics predispose these neonates to severe sepsis and poor outcome (4). Sepsis related mortality is largely preventable with prevention of sepsis, timely recognition, and rational antimicrobial therapy (5).
Introduction : Infections are the single largest cause of neonatal deaths globally. Sepsis is the commonest cause of neonatal mortality and is responsible for about 30- 50% of the total neonatal deaths every year in developing countries. This study is done to assess the risk factors associated with neonatal sepsis. Aims and Objectives: To assess the distribution of risk factors of neonatal sepsis. Materials and Methods : This study was conducted over a period of 12 months.
The decisions to prescribe antibiotics are reliant on clinical examination of symptoms such as fever, sputum discoloration and breathlessness.4 In modern society, no clinical test can produce a flawless diagnosis. However, in an appropriate clinical context, point of care (POC) biomarkers can guide the clinician in determining antibiotic treatment in specific cases, by eliminating severe bacterial infections and identifying patient’s who will not benefit from antibiotics. The systematic review, “Biomarkers as point-of-care tests to guide prescription of antibiotics in patients with acute respiratory infections in primary care,” analysed the research of six studies, to assess whether POC biomarkers integrated with clinical examination is an
The overuse of antibiotics has been a problem for well over a decade. This misuse leads to many nonvisible problems arising within the human population. As the use of antibiotics increases, the number of antibiotic resistant bacteria also increases. When bacteria become resistant to an antibiotic, another antibiotic must be used to try and kill it and the cycle becomes vicious. Michael Martin, Sapna Thottathil, and Thomas Newman stated that antimicrobial resistance is, “an increasingly serious threat to global public health that requires action across all government sectors and society” (2409).