Literature Review Of Total Quality Management

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Chapter Two: Literature Review
This chapter provides a review of the literature that has studied related topics to the concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM) and Teamwork among healthcare environment. The literature review included a search of multiple databases: Science direct, Pubmed, Google scholar and Wiley online library. The keywords utilized in the search engines were: Total quality management, teamwork, teamwork in healthcare and teamwork improvement.
Organizations all over the world have to use different techniques for quality improvement. TQM is one of the competitive strategies that are widely used within organizations for improving quality and achieving success. The concept of TQM was developed in the late of 1940s and 1960s in Japan after the Second World War by Freigenbum, Juran and Deming. Top management commitment is one of the core principles in TQM which assumed to have a vital and important role in creating an organizational climate that empower staff (Ramesh and Ravi, 2013).
Customer Focus, leadership, continual improvement and teamwork are distinctive TQM principles that are widely used in the healthcare. Customer here is the patient who receives health services and the fulfillment of patient's needs and satisfaction is the ultimate goal in any healthcare organization. Continuous improvement is the next
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It is recognized that teamwork is essential for patient safety and one of the most important facilitators in achieving positive cost effective outcomes (Austin, 2012). However, teamwork in healthcare can be defined as "a dynamic process involving two or more health professionals with complementary backgrounds and skills, sharing common health goals and exercising concerted physical and mental effort in assessing, planning, or evaluating patient care" (Xyrichis and Ream,
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