Literature Review On Measles

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2. Literature Review
Measles disease: Epidemiology
Measles is a very infectious viral disease caused by the measles virus, and it is most common in children. Its main features include maculopapular rash, fever (more than 400 C), cough, coryza, and conjunctivitis. The disease is highly contagious and airborne, spreading through droplets of the secretions of the nose throat and mouth of an infected person. It develops in more than 90 percent of susceptible 10-12 days after exposure to a measles virus (Caserta, 2014)). The World Health Organization specifies that measles should be diagnosed in the Laboratories with the presence of IgM antibodies specific for measles in the serum of a suspected case (WHO, 2016). An outbreak of measles is said to occur if more than three
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Onyiriuka (2011) in a study, reported that cases of the disease are responsible for 3.1 percent of the inpatients in the in the Pediatric Department and that 47.8 percent are between the ages 13 to 24 months, 18.1 percent being under the age of 9 months. The report went further to state that 77.9 percent of the cases did not receive measles vaccine as against 22.9 that had the vaccinations. More cases were reported in the dry season than in the wet season. The author observed the two leading complications as a result of measles infection were bronchopneumonia (55.1%) and diarrhea with dehydration (13.0%). A study by Etuk, et al. (2003) also corroborated the increasing number of measles cases in tertiary health facilities. An infection of measles confers lifetime immunity in an individual. Immunity against measles can also be acquired through immunization with measles vaccine. According to World Health Organization (2012), interrupting transmission of the disease requires achieving population immunity of at least 95% with measles
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