Literature Review On Metacognition

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2. Literature review 2.1. Metacognition Generally Metacognition is defined as “how individual monitor and control their cognitive process” (Young & Fry, 2008). Metacognition refers to being able to reflect upon, understand, and control one’s learning. Previous accounts of metacognition have differentiated between two major components, including knowledge about cog¬nition and regulation of cognition (Brown, 1987; Flavell, 1987; Jacobs & Paris, 1987). Knowledge about cognition includes three sub processes that simplify the reflective aspect of metacognition: declarative knowledge (i.e., knowledge about self and about strategies), procedural knowledge (i.e., knowledge about how to use strategies), and conditional knowledge (i.e., knowledge…show more content…
Metacognition instruments As we know it is highly believed that Metacognition plays an important role in the process of teaching and learning, therefore, the obstacle of research on teacher metacognition is the lack of appropriate measurements (Perfect & Schwartz, 2002; Prytula, 2008, 2012). In order to measure metacognition Many instruments have generated (Table…show more content…
In the area of general education, research has been found that intelligence is a strong predictor of learning (Chamorro-Premuzic, 2007; Primi, Ferrao, & Almeida, 2010). According to Flavell (1979, 1987), metacognition involves metacognitive knowledge and metacognitive experiences or regulation of cognition. Also Metacognition has been recognized as a strong predictor of learning (Coutinho, 2007; Dunning, Johnson, Ehrlinger, & Kruger, 2003; Flavell, 1976, 1979; Kruger & Dunning, 1999; Veenman & Elshout, 1995). The pupose of this research is to give information about relationships between intelligence, metacognition, and learning but first of all the examination of the predictive power of intelligence and metacognition in L2 learning gets priority in this study. Then, estimated the distinctive contribution of metacognition and intelligence beyond and above each other. Although some studies have done such these examination ,such as; language learning and intelligence (Ekstrand, 1977; Genesee, 1976), and language learning and metacognition (Green & Oxford, 1995; Oxford & Burry-Stock, 1995), but no study has examined the concurrent relationship of these two variables as language learning’s predictors. In This study the examination of the role of
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